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Flashcards in Neruo 12 pathology of CNS Deck (20):
1

In meningitis, which meninges are inflamed?

Pia mater and arachnoid mater

2

Symptoms of meningitis?

headache, neck stiffness, fever, photophobia, vomiting

3

Causative organisms of meningitis in neonates, 2-5 years, 5-30 years, and 30+?

neonates - e coli 2-5 - Haemophilius influenzae 5-30 - Neisseria meningitides 30+ - Strep pneumoniae

4

Complications of meningitis?

RICP, cerebral infarction, epilepsy, subdural empyema

5

What is encephalitis?

Infection of neural parenchyma

6

Symptoms of encephalitis?

Headache, fever, confusion, drowsiness, fatigue

7

Causative organisms of encephalitis?

HSV, CMV, HIV

8

What are prion disease examples?

Kuru, nvCJD, spongiform encephalopathy

9

What is normal ICP?

0-10 mmHg, up to 20mmHg when coughing or straining

10

What is raised ICP?

>60 mmHG

11

How is cerebral blood flow maintained in raised pressure?

Reduced blood flow, reduced CSF volume, brain atrophy

12

Symptoms of RICP?

headache, vomiting, papilloedema. Cushing reflex - increased blood pressure, reduced HR, irregular respiration

13

What are the 3 types of herniation of the brain? Explain them and their resulting effects

Subfalcine - cingulate gyrus pushed under free edge of falx cerebri. results in ischemia in parietal and frontal lobe and corpus callosum due to compression of ACA.

Tentorial - Uncus herniates through tentorial notch. Damage to CN 3 and occlusion of cerebellar arteries

Tonsillar - cerebellar tonsils pushed into foramen magnum wtih compression of brainstem. cardiac arrest and apnoea

14

Most common primary tumours of CNS? benign and malignant

benign - meningioma malignant - astrocytoma

15

What is primary damage of a head injury?

The movement of the brain inside the skull. Can be divided into: - focal damage - bruising and laceration of brain at initial site of impact as well as the opposite side of the brain - Diffuse damage - tearing of axons due to injury. results in gliotic scarring, can lead to dementia

16

What is the cause of a tension headache? How does it present? how do you treat?

neurovascular irritation from excessive tension in the scalp muscles. symptoms - tight band sensation, pressure behind eyes treat - paracetemol, analgesic withdrawal

17

`What is a migraine headache? How does it present?

Recurrent headache with visual and GI disturbances. 4 phases - well being before attack, prodromal symptoms, main attack, sleep and feeling of being drained after. prodromal symptoms - aphasia and sensory changes

18

What is a cluster headache? Which age group is it most common in?

Severe pain clustering around one eye. Most common in males from 30-40 yo

19

What is temporal arteritis? Symptoms?

Inflammation of the arteries of the head.Artery becomes hard, tortuous, thickened. Symptoms - facial pain and visual provlems. severe malaise and tiredness.

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