Neuro 1.1 Gross anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuro 1.1 Gross anatomy Deck (54):
1

What stains can one use to stain nuclei and Nissl substances of neurones?

Neutral red stain

Cresylecht Violet

2

What stains could one use to stain axons?

Sudan black

Fast blue

3

Where is grey matter found in the spinal cord and in the cerebral cortex?

In Spinal cord - centrally, 'H' shaped

In cerebral cortex - peripherally

4

What are reflex arcs?

neural pathway controlling an action reflex e.g. knee jerk reflex

5

Annotate the ventricular system of the brain

6

7

8

Annotate the lobes of the cerebrum

9

Annotate the major gyri and sulci

10

11

Annotate the regional blood supply of the brain

12

How many pairs of cranial and spinal nerves are there?

Cranial - 12 pairs

spinal - 31 pairs

13

What membranes envelop the CNS and the PNS?

CNS - meninges

PNS - endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium

14

What are the 2 cell types located in the CNS?

  1. Neurones
  2. Neuroglia

15

Where does the spinal cord show enlargement and why?

At cervical and lumbar levels due to brachial plexus and lumbar plexus

16

What are the 3 sutures of the skull?

Coronal, saggital, lambdoid

17

What is the name of:

a) groove of brain

b) a major groove of brain

c) Elevations of brain?

a) sulci

b) fissures

c) gyri

18

How are the 2 hemispheres of the brain connected?

by corpus callosum and commissures

19

What are the 3 primary vesicles of the brain?

forebrain - prosencephalon

midbrain - mesencephalon

hindbrain - rhombencephalon

20

What are the 5 secondary vesicles of the brain and what do they differentiate from?

  1. diencephalon - forebrain
  2. telencephalon - forebrain
  3. mesencephalon - midbrain
  4. metencephalon - hindbrain
  5. myelencephalon - hindbrain

21

What is the name of the saggitally running infolding found in the midline?

cerebral falx

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23

How does the tentorium cerebelli and the cerebral falx divide the cranial cavity?

Tentorium cerebelli - Supra-tentorial and Infra-tentorial compartments

Cerebral falx - Left and right halves

24

What is akinesia?

Muscular weakness and fatigue

25

what is apraxia?

Difficulty with motor planning

26

What is agnosia?

Inability to recognise objects w/o defective senes of smell or sight or memory loss

27

What is aphasia?

language disorder

28

What is areflexia?

absent reflexes

29

what is ataxia?

failure of muscle coordination

30

what is bradykinesia?

Slow execution of movement

31

what is dysphagia?

difficulty swallowing

32

What is dysarthria?

Unclear articulation of speech

33

what is dysphonia?

difficulty speaking due to disorder of muscles or vocal cords

34

What is dysdiadochokinesis?

Impaired ability to perform rapid alternating movements

35

What is dyslexia?

Disturbed reading

36

What is hypertonia?

Increased tone of muscles

37

What is hyporeflexia?

reduced reflexes

38

What is paraplegia?

Impairment in motor or sensory function in lower limb

39

What is hemiplegia?

Paralysis on one side of the body

40

What is quadriplegia?

Paralysis of all limbs and torso

41

What is ophthalmoplegia?

Paralysis of muscles of eye

42

What is paresis?

Weakness of voluntary movement

43

What is hemiparesis?

Weakness of entire left or right side of body

44

What is palsy?

Paralysis accompanied by loss of feeling and weakness

45

What is chorea?

Involuntary movements of muscles esp shoulders, hip and face

46

What is spacticity?

 Combo of paralysis, increased tendon reflex and hypertonia

Unidirectional. Velocity dependent

47

What is rigidity?

AKA hypokinesia

Partial or complete loss of muscle movement

Bidirectional. Not velocity dependent

48

What is anencephaly and how does it arise?

Absence of major part of brain due to failure of anterior end of neural tube to close

49

What condition arises if too much CSF accumulates in vesicles of brain? How is this condition treated?

Hydrocephalus

Surgey places a shunt in the vesicles of the brain that redirects excess CSF into other body cavities

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51

If blood forms between these layers, what is it called and what type of blood is it:

a) Skull and periosteal layer of dura

b) Meningeal layer of dura and arachnoid mater

c) within subarachnoid space

a) extradural haematoma - arterial

b) subdural hameatoma - venous

c) subarachnoid haematoma - arterial

52

What is CSF rhinorrhoea

fracture of frontal sinus or cribiform plate resulting in CSF leaking through the nose. Brain open to infection

53

Describe the composition of CSF compared to blood

Higher na, mg, and cl

Lower glucose, calcium, K, white cells

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