Pharma 12 Psychiatric Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharma 12 Psychiatric Drugs Deck (30):
1

What are the 3 core symptoms of depression and associated symptoms?

2/3 needed for diagnosis

Low mood

Anhedonia (No pleasure)

Decreased Energy

2

What are some secondary symtoms of depression

Decrease appetite

Sleep Disturbance

Hopelessness 

Reduced Concentration

Iritatability

Self Harm

Reduced Libido

psychotic symptoms

3

What are the 2 theories behind the development of depression?

1) Monoamine neurotransmittters deficiency

2) Monoamine receptors are deficiency

4

What are the 4 classes of antidepressants and how do they work

  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
  • Tricyclic antidepressant (TCAs)
  • Serotonin-noradrnaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

5

Why are MAOIs rarely used?

Serious ADRs and DDIs

6

give 2 examples SSRI drugs

Fluoxetine (Prozac), citalopram, paroxetine, sertraline

7

Give SSRI ADRs

GI abnormalities

Headache

SSRI Serotonin syndrome (Mania)

Stimulate CNS

Reproductive dysfunction in males

Insomnia

 

8

Give the MoA of TCAs

Block reuptake of serotonin and noradrenaline at presynaptic membrane

9

Give 3 examples of TCAs

imipramine

lofepramine

amitriptiline

10

Give ADRs of TCAs

CNS - sedation and impairment of psychomotor performance, lowering of seizure threshold

Autonomic nervous system - reduction in glandular secretions, eye accommodation block

CVS - tachycardia, postural hypotension, impair myocardial contractility

GI - constipation

11

Give ADRs of SNRIs

Same as SSRIs + some additional actions due to noradrenaline uptake inhibition

Sleep disturbance,

Increased BP

Dry mouth

Hyponatraemia

12

Give 2 examples of SNRIs

Venlafaxine

Duloxetine

13

What is psychosis

Lossing contact with reality.

14

Give the positive symptoms of schizophrenia

Hallucinations

Disturbances of thinking

Delusions

Behavioural change

15

Give the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia

Selective attention

Poor memory

Reduced astract thought

16

What is the main theory behind development of schizophrenia?

Oversecretion of dopamine

17

How do typical anti-psychotics work in schizophrenia? Name 2 examples

Dopamine (D2) antagonists.

Haloperidal, Chloropromazine

18

What makes an atypical antipsychotic atypical?

Less likely to cause extrapyramidal signs

19

How do atypical anti-psychotics work in schizophrenia? Give 4 example drugs. Why are they preferred?

D2 antagonists but only selective pathways meaning less parkinson like symptoms, lactation and sexual dysfunction

Risperidone, olanzipine, clozapine, quetiapine

20

Give the ADRs of antipsychotics

Weight gain (esp olanzipine)

Hyperprolactinemia

Extra-pyramidal side effects (Parkinson like symptoms)

Cardiac toxicity

21

Clozapine ADRs

Agranulocytosis due to sever leukopenia

Secere Constipation

Hypersalivation

Weight Gain (25Kg)

22

What is Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome and what are it's symptoms

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a life-threatening, neurological disorder caused by an adverse reaction to antipsychotic drugs.

Symptoms include high fever, sweating, unstable blood pressure, stupor, muscular rigidity, and autonomic dysfunction.

23

Define anxiety (pathological)

Fear out of proportion of the situation so that individuals undergo avoidance or physical symptoms e.g. light headedness, SOB

24

How do you treat anxiety disorders?

Cognative Behavioural Therapy (CBT) first line, then pharmacological.

Anti-depressents then Benzodiazepines (Very addictive)

25

What MoA of Benzodiazepines

How would you treat an overdose?

ADRs?

GABARs agonist

ADRs - dependence, drowsiness, dizziness, psychomotor impairment, dry mouth, hypotension

Overdose treated with flumazenil - BZD antagonist

26

Define bipolar disorder (Manic Depression)

episodes of mania and depression with poor concentration, sleep, rapid speech, poor judgement

Mania - Unusually excited/ happy/ optimistic/ overactive, poor concentration/ judgement, increased libido, grandiose psychotic episodes

27

How do you treat bipolar disorder?

Mood Stabalizers

Lithium, Sodium valproate, Carbamazepine

28

What are the ADRs of Lithium

How do you treat toxicity/overdose

Nephrotoxic, thyrotoxic, memory problems, thirst, polyuria, tremor, hair loss

Supportive measures, Anticonvulsants, IV Fluids, Haemodialysis

29

What medications do you use to treat Alzheimers dementia

  • Acetyl Cholinesterase Inhibitors 
    • Donepezil, Galantamine, Rivastigmine
    • Early stage
  • NMDAr antagonist
    • Memantine
    • Late Stage

30

MoA of Acetyl Cholinesterase Inhibitors 

ADRs

GI upset, insomnia, bradycardia