Flashcards in Pharma 10.2 Chemotherapy Deck (16):
What are the 5 types of chemotherapy agents
alkylating agents, anti-metabolites, spindle poisons, bleomycin, anthracycline antibiotics
How do alkylating agents work?
Forms covalent bonds intrastrand or
interstrand between DNA strands
Name the 2 anti-metabolites. How do the 2 anti-metabolites work?
5-FU - Inhibits thymidylate synthase, Needed to form pyramidines
Methotrexate - Inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, needed to form purines and thymine
Name some ADRs of chemotherapy agents
myelosuppression, weight loss, N&V, cardiotoxicity, alopecia, sepsis
What are the 3 methods in which resistance can arise in a tumour?
Decreased entry or exit of agent, Enhanced repair of DNA lesions, inactivation of agent in cell
Give an example alkylating agent.
How do spindle poisons work?
Affects the microtubular structure
of spindle fibre formation Either by Inhibit their formation (vinca alkaloids) or by Causing excessive polymerisation (taxanes)
How do you administer chemo?
In doses to allow bone marrow to recover
How do you monitor chemotherapy?
Tumour marker blood test, bone marrow testing, radiological imaging
Give example spindle poisions
taxane - paclitaxel
Vinca alkaloid - vincristine, vinblastine
How does bleomycin work?
Produces superoxide and hydroxde free radicals
Give 2 example anthracycline antibiotic
How do anthracycline antibiotics work?
Intercalates between spaces between DNA base pairs which stops normal replication and generates free radicals - triggers apoptosis
How can a cell increase the exit of a chemo drug?
Expression of MDRP
How can a cell decrease entry of a chemo drug?
Downregulation of active carrier