Pharma 4.1 Sex Steroids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharma 4.1 Sex Steroids Deck (21):
1

Explain how the hypothalamus regulates and produces sex steroids in females

  1. Hypothalamus produces GnRH which acts on ant pit.
  2. Ant. pit releases FSH and LH.
  3. FSH acts on germ cells and produces oestrogens 
  4. LH acts on germ cells to trigger ovulation
  5. Corpus luteum produces oestrogens and progesterone which inhibit the ant pit.

 

2

How do steroid hormones function?

Enter cell and bind to intracellular receptors that affect gene transcription

3

How are steroids transported in the blood?

Bound to SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin) and albumin

4

Why is perscription of steroids inappropriate in liver disease?

Because the liver metabolises the steroids and in liver disease metabolism would be impaired.

5

What are the 2 types of oral contraceptive pills?

COCP (combined) and POP (progesterone only)

6

How does the COCP work?

Suppresses ovulation by inhibiting FSH and LH

Thickens cervial mucous (progesterone)

Thins endometrium (progesterone)

7

What are the adverse effects of the COCP?

Increased risk of venous thromboembolism, MI, hypertension, stroke

8

How does the POP work?>

thickens mucous at cervix and makes endometrial lining thin so it doesnt support implantation

9

How does a copper IUD work?

Copper is toxic to sperm and kills it

10

What is HRT used for?

Limits osteoporosis and prevents symptoms of menopause.

11

What are the risks of HRT?

Increased risk of ovarian and breast cancer, stroke, and DVT

12

Which type of lipoprotein is responsible for increasing risk of CHD?

LDL cholesterol

13

Name 3 risk factors of CHD

cholesterol, hypertension, smoking

14

Name 4 classes of lipid lowering drugs

statins, cholesterol lipase inhibitors, niacin, fibrates

15

How do statins work?

Work by inhibiting HMG CoA reductase which is used to produce cholesterol

16

What are some ADRs of statins

Nausea, hepatotoxic, rhabdomyolysis

17

How do fibric acid derivatives work?

PPAR alpha agonist - increaes production of lipoprotein lipase

Lowers LDL and TGs, raises HDL

18

What are some side effects of fibric acid?

GI upset, cholelithiasis (gall stones), myositis (inflammation of muscles)

19

How does niacin work? What does it do? ADRs?

Works by inhibiting lipoprotein a synthesis

reduces VLDL and TG and increases HDL

ADR - gall stones, hyperglycaemia, CYP inhibitor

20

What type of drug is ezetimibe? How does it work?

It is a cholesterol lipase inhibitor. Works by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption to the liver from the gut, this increases hepatic LDL receptors and results in reduced plasma LDL.

 

21

Name the Inducers of CYP enzymes

PC BRAS

Phenotoin

Carbamazepine

Barbiturates

Rifampicin

Alcohol (chronic)

St Johns Wort