what is dysphagia?
What is dysarthria?
Unclear articulation of speech
what is dysphonia?
difficulty speaking due to disorder of muscles or vocal cords
What is dysdiadochokinesis?
Impaired ability to perform rapid alternating movements
What is dyslexia?
What is hypertonia?
Increased tone of muscles
What is hyporeflexia?
What is paraplegia?
Impairment in motor or sensory function in lower limb
What is hemiplegia?
Paralysis on one side of the body
What is quadriplegia?
Paralysis of all limbs and torso
What is ophthalmoplegia?
Paralysis of muscles of eye
What is paresis?
Weakness of voluntary movement
What is hemiparesis?
Weakness of entire left or right side of body
What is palsy?
Paralysis accompanied by loss of feeling and weakness
What is chorea?
Involuntary movements of muscles esp shoulders, hip and face
What is spacticity?
Combo of paralysis, increased tendon reflex and hypertonia
Unidirectional. Velocity dependent
What is rigidity?
Partial or complete loss of muscle movement
Bidirectional. Not velocity dependent
What is anencephaly and how does it arise?
Absence of major part of brain due to failure of anterior end of neural tube to close
What condition arises if too much CSF accumulates in vesicles of brain? How is this condition treated?
Surgey places a shunt in the vesicles of the brain that redirects excess CSF into other body cavities
If blood forms between these layers, what is it called and what type of blood is it:
a) Skull and periosteal layer of dura
b) Meningeal layer of dura and arachnoid mater
c) within subarachnoid space
a) extradural haematoma - arterial
b) subdural hameatoma - venous
c) subarachnoid haematoma - arterial
What is CSF rhinorrhoea
fracture of frontal sinus or cribiform plate resulting in CSF leaking through the nose. Brain open to infection
Describe the composition of CSF compared to blood
Higher na, mg, and cl
Lower glucose, calcium, K, white cells