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Flashcards in Airway Management And Ventilation Deck (138)
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What is the the anatomical space between the base of the tongue and the epiglottis? It also is an important landmark for endotracheal intubation.

The vallecula

1

What is the sellick maneuver?

Compressing the cricoid cartilage that occludes the esophagus resulting in reduced gastric distention during ventilation and placement of an endotracheal tube.

2

What is the total lung capacity in an average adult male?

6L

3

What is the normal tidal volume in an adult male?

5-7 mL/kg

(Approximately 500mL)

4

What is the normal tidal volume for pediatric patients?

6-8 mL/kg

5

What is alveolar air?

The amount of gas that reaches the alveoli with each breath.

6

What is the formula for alveolar air?

Tidal volume➖dead space volume

It is approximately 350mL

7

What are the two phases of ventilation?

Inspiration
Expiration

8

What is the nervous system mechanism that terminates inhalation and prevents lung over-expansion?

Hering-Breuer reflex

9

What is external (pulmonary) respiration?

Exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood cells in the pulmonary capillaries

10

What is internal (cellular) respiration?

Exchange of gases between blood cells and tissues

11

What is a minute volume?

The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one minute

(Tidal volume ➖ dead space volume)✖️respiratory rate

12

The amount of air that can be forced from the lungs in a single forced exhalation is called what?

Functional reserve capacity

13

What is residual volume?

The air that remains after maximal expiration

14

What is the residual volume of an average male?

1200 mL

15

What is inspiratory reserve volume?

The amount of air you can inhale after a normal inhalation

16

What are the two motor nerves of respiration?

Phrenic nerves
Intercostal nerves

17

What do the phrenic nerves do?

Innervates the diaphragm

18

What do the intercostal nerves do?

Innervates the external intercostal muscles (muscles between the ribs)

19

What is the percentage of oxygen that makes up hemoglobin?

97%

20

What is the remaining oxygen that is dissolved in plasma called?

Partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 , PO2)

21

What is a byproduct of cellular respiration?

Carbon dioxide

22

What are three conditions that decrease the surface area of the alveoli?

COPD
Pneumonia
Pulmonary edema

23

What is intrapulmonary shunting?

If the alveoli are not functional, carbon dioxide and oxygen will not be allowed to diffuse. Therefore the blood will bypass the alveoli and will return to the left side of the heart and in an unoxygenated state

24

What is Dalton's law?

The total pressure exerted equals the sum of the partial pressures of the components of that gas, or the pressure exerted by a specific atmospheric gas

25

What is the total pressure of air at sea level?

About 760 mm Hg (760 torr)

26

What connects the medulla and the respiratory muscles?

The vagus nerve

27

What three things does the medullary respiratory centers control?

Rate
Depth
Rhythm

...Of breathing

28

What is the secondary control center of respiration if the medulla fails to initiate respiration?

The apneustic center of the pons

29

How does the apneustic center influence the respiratory rate?

By increasing the number of inspirations per minute