Flashcards in Human Systems Deck (105)
What is Anatomy?
The study of the structure of an organism and its parts.
What is Physiology?
The study of the body functions in a living organism
What is Pathophysiology?
The study of body functions of a living organism in an abnormal state
What are the five body cavities?
What is the coronal (frontal) plane?
A vertical plane running from side to side; divides the body or any of its parts into anterior and posterior portions.
What is the sagittal (lateral) plane?
A vertical plane running from front to back; divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sides.
What is the transverse (axial) plane?
A horizontal plane; divides the body or any of its parts into upper and lower parts
What is diffusion?
The movement of solutes (particles) from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
HIGH TO LOW
What is osmosis?
The movement of a solvent (usually water) from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration
LOW TO HIGH
What is facilitated diffusion?
The process in which a carrier molecule moves substances in or out of the cell; energy is not required
NO ENERGY NEEDED
What is active transport?
The movement of a substance against their concentration or gradient; requires energy
NEED ENERGY TO MOVE
What is anabolism?
Building phase of metabolism, where smaller molecules are converted to larger molecules
SMALL TO BIG
What is catabolism?
The break-down phase of metabolism, in which larger molecules are converted to smaller molecules
BIG TO SMALL
What does cellular respiration create?
Energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
What are the four lobes of the brain called?
Frontal (in the front)
Parietal (behind frontal)
Occipital (in the back)
Temporal (on the sides under parietal)
What four things does the frontal lobe control?
Voluntary motor action
What four things does the parietal lobe control?
What does the occipital lobe control?
What two things does the temporal lobe control?
What does the cerebrum control?
Higher thought processes
What two things does the cerebellum control?
What two things does the diencephalon contain?
What three things does the thalamus do?
Processes sensory input
General body movements
What two things does the hypothalamus do?
Regulates body temperature, respiration, and heartbeat
Directs hormone secretions of the pituitary gland
What three things does the brainstem consist of?
What two things does the brain stem do?
Controls functions necessary for life
Plays a roll in consciousness
The CNS (brain and spinal chord) is enclosed by what?
What are the three layers of the meninges?
The outer most and toughest layer of the meninges is called what?
What is the middle layer of the meninges that contain spider webs of blood vessel?
What is the inner layer of the meninges that rests on the brain and spinal chord?
What do afferent tracts of the spinal chord do?
Carry sensory info from the body to the brain
What do efferent tracts of the spinal chord do?
Carry motor impulses from the brain to the peripheral nervous system
What two neurotransmitters do the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system secrete?
Either acetylcholine or norepinephrine
What is a neuron that secretes acetylcholine?
What is a neuron that secretes norepinepherine?
What three things does the pancreas produce?
In the pancreas, what specialized groups of cells produce insulin and glucagon?
Islets of Langerhans
At the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, what do alpha cell secrete?
At the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, what do beta cells secrete?
What two things do the adrenal glands manufacture and secrete?
Manufacture and secrete sex hormones and certain hormones that are vital in maintaining body’s salt and water balance
What is the middle part of the adrenal glands called?
In adrenal glands, what two things does the medulla produce?
In the adrenal gland, what does the hormone "mineralocorticoids" do?
Balances salt and water levels
In adrenal glands, what three things does the hormone "Glucocorticoids" do?
Regulation of blood glucose
Metabolism of fat
Inhibition of inflammation
What are red blood cells also called?
What are white blood cells also called?
What is the mediastinum?
The space between the lungs in the center of the chest
What is the pericardium?
A thick, fibrous membrane that surrounds the heart
What two things does the pericardium do?
Anchors heart in the mediastinum,
Prevents over distention of the heart
What is the serous pericardium?
Inner membrane of the pericardium
What are two layers of the serous pericardium?
Where is the tricuspid valve located in the heart?
Between the right atrium and right ventricle
Where is the bicuspid (mitral) valve located in the heart?
Between the left atrial and left ventricle
Where is the pulmonary valve located in the heart?
Between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
Where is the aortic valve located in the heart?
Between the left ventricle and the aorta
When does systole occur?
When the heart contracts and pumps blood from the heart valves and into the arteries
When does diastole occur?
When the heart relaxes and fills up with blood
What is cardiac output?
The amount of blood pumped through the circulatory system in one minute
What is stroke volume?
The amount of blood ejected from the heart per contraction
Stroke volume times Heart rate equals?
What is Starlings law of the heart?
The length of the fibers of the myocardium determines the force of the heartbeat. An increase in diastolic filling equals an increase in the force of the heartbeat.
How many lobes does the right lung have?
How many lobes does the left lung have?
What membrane of connective tissues covers the lungs
What covers the viscera pleura (pleura cavity) of the lungs?
Where is the respiratory center located?
In the medulla
What is the main stimulation of respiration?
Accumulation of carbon dioxide
What three things make up the large intestine?
What is intracellular fluid?
Fluid found within the cell that is potassium rich
What is extracellular fluid?
Fluid outside the cells that is sodium rich
What do epithelial tissue do?
Lines all tubes in the body
What are four structures of the dermis
Specialized nerve endings
What word means the functional unit of an organ?
(Parenchyma of the lungs is alveoli)
(Of cardiac system is the heart muscle)
What are neurotransmitters?
Chemicals that transmit signals across a synapse from one neuron to another "target" neuron
What two structural and functional categories are Adrenergic receptors classified as?
Alpha and Beta
What effect does alpha 1 particles have regarding adrenergic receptors?
What effect does alpha 2 particles have regarding adrenergic receptors?
What effect does beta 1 particles have regarding adrenergic receptors?
What effect does beta 2 particles have regarding adrenergic receptors?
What does glucagon do?
Stimulates the breakdown of glycogen to glucose
What is hemostasis?
The cessation of bleeding
When is the enzyme thrombin formed?
When a blood vessel is injured
What happens when thrombin is formed?
Fibrinogen turns to fibrin, causing a mature clot
What is automaticity?
Ability of heart to generate impulse without any stimulus
What makes heart sounds?
Closing of valves in heart
(Mitral+tricuspid at systole
Aortic and pulmonic at diastole)
What artery carries deoxygenated blood?
What vein carries oxygenated blood?
What is another word for hypoperfusion?
What are the four kinds of shock?
Where is the division of the upper and lower airway?
At the glottis
Why does the left lung have two lobes?
The heart takes up space
What is it called when falling oxygen levels stimulate breathing?
What do antidiuretic hormone do?
Prevent you from peeing all the time
What is the ph of blood?
What is a buffer?
Compound that repeatedly neutralizes excess acids or bases
What system is the fastest way to get rid of access acid?
What is the order of the cardiac conduction system? (5)
Bundle of his
Right and left bundle branches
What is the term for having a stiff neck?
What are the three layers of a blood vessel?
What is the inner most layer of the blood vessels?
What is the middle layer of the blood vessel?
What is the outer layer of the blood vessel?
When does coronary circulation occur in the heart?
During the diastolic phase