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Flashcards in Human Systems Deck (105)
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What is Anatomy?

The study of the structure of an organism and its parts.

1

What is Physiology?

The study of the body functions in a living organism

2

What is Pathophysiology?

The study of body functions of a living organism in an abnormal state

3

What are the five body cavities?

Cranial
Spinal
Thoracic
Abdominal
Pelvic

4

What is the coronal (frontal) plane?

A vertical plane running from side to side; divides the body or any of its parts into anterior and posterior portions.

5

What is the sagittal (lateral) plane?

A vertical plane running from front to back; divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sides.

6

What is the transverse (axial) plane?

A horizontal plane; divides the body or any of its parts into upper and lower parts

7

What is diffusion?

The movement of solutes (particles) from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

HIGH TO LOW

8

What is osmosis?

The movement of a solvent (usually water) from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration

LOW TO HIGH

9

What is facilitated diffusion?

The process in which a carrier molecule moves substances in or out of the cell; energy is not required

NO ENERGY NEEDED

10

What is active transport?

The movement of a substance against their concentration or gradient; requires energy

NEED ENERGY TO MOVE

11

What is anabolism?

Building phase of metabolism, where smaller molecules are converted to larger molecules

SMALL TO BIG

12

What is catabolism?

The break-down phase of metabolism, in which larger molecules are converted to smaller molecules

BIG TO SMALL

13

What does cellular respiration create?

Energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

14

What are the four lobes of the brain called?

Frontal (in the front)
Parietal (behind frontal)
Occipital (in the back)
Temporal (on the sides under parietal)

15

What four things does the frontal lobe control?

Voluntary motor action
Conscious thought
Personality
Speech

16

What four things does the parietal lobe control?

Language
Taste
Sensory info
Body awareness

17

What does the occipital lobe control?

Vision

18

What two things does the temporal lobe control?

Hearing
Memory

19

What does the cerebrum control?

Higher thought processes

20

What two things does the cerebellum control?

Muscle movement
Balance

21

What two things does the diencephalon contain?

Thalamus
Hypothalamus

22

What three things does the thalamus do?

Processes sensory input
Influences mood
General body movements

23

What two things does the hypothalamus do?

Regulates body temperature, respiration, and heartbeat
Directs hormone secretions of the pituitary gland

24

What three things does the brainstem consist of?

Midbrain (mesencephalon)
Pons
Medulla

25

What two things does the brain stem do?

Controls functions necessary for life
Plays a roll in consciousness

26

The CNS (brain and spinal chord) is enclosed by what?

Meninges

27

What are the three layers of the meninges?

Dura mater
Arachnoid
Pia mater

28

The outer most and toughest layer of the meninges is called what?

Dura mater

29

What is the middle layer of the meninges that contain spider webs of blood vessel?

Arachnoid