Basic Arrhythmias Flashcards Preview

Paramedic > Basic Arrhythmias > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basic Arrhythmias Deck (77):
0

What are the two types of cells in the heart?

Electrical cells
Mechanical cells

1

What do electrical cells do?

Initiate and conduct impulses

2

What do mechanical cells do?

Contract in response to stimulation

3

What is polarization?

Electrical charges are balanced and ready for discharge

4

What is depolarization?

Discharge of energy that accompanies the transfer of electrical charges across the cell membrane

5

What is repolarization?

Return of electrical charges to original state

6

What part of the heart pathway stimulates the mechanical cells?

Perkinje fibers

7

What is the inherent rate of the SA node?

60-100

8

What is the inherent rate of the AV junction?

40-60

9

What is the inherent rate of the ventricles?

20-40

10

What determines what will be the pacemaker?

The site with the fastest rate

11

What is the normal pacemaker?

SA node

12

What is it called when a site speeds up and takes over as pacemaker?

Irritability

13

What is it called when the normal pacemaker slows down or fails and a lower site assumed pacemaker responsibility?

Escape

14

Sympathetic stimulation causes what three things with the heart?

Increase heart rate
Increase AV conduction
Increase irritability

15

Parasympathetic stimulation causes what three things in the heart?

Decreased heart rate
Decreased AV conduction
Decreased irritability

16

What does the sympathetic branch influence in the heart?

Both the atria and the ventricles

17

What does the parasympathetic branch influence in the heart?

Atria

18

Is it negative or positive inside a cardiac cell?

Negative

19

Is it positive or negative outside a cardiac cell?

Positive

20

What electrolyte is inside cardiac cells?

Potassium

21

What electrolyte is outside a cardiac cell?

Sodium

22

What is the isoelectric line?

Straight line produced on EKG machine that means no current is flowing

23

If the flow of electricity is toward the positive electrode what will the EKG machine produce?

An upward deflection

24

If the flow of electricity is toward the negative electrode what will the EKG machine produce?

A downward deflection

25

How much time in between two tic marks?

3 seconds

26

What does the height of the deflection indicate?

The voltage

27

Which lines measure voltage?

Horizontal

28

Which line measures time?

Vertical lines

29

How much time is in between two heavy vertical lines on an EKG graph?

.20 seconds

30

How much time is in between two lite vertical lines on an EKG graph?

.04 seconds

(1/5th the time of bold vertical lines)

31

What are the five waves called in a single cardiac cycle?

P
Q
R
S
T

32

What does an interval refer to?

In the area between the waves

33

What does a segment referred to?

A straight line or area of electrical inactivity between waves

34

What wave is indicative of atrial depolarization?

P wave

35

What is the PR segment indicative of?

The delay in the AV node

36

What area of the heart is the slowest conduction speed?

AV node

37

Why does the AV node have the slowest conduction speed?

To allow time for atrial contraction and complete filling of the ventricles

38

What does the PR interval monitor?

All electrical activity in the heart before the impulse reaches the ventricles

39

What is the first negative deflection?

The Q wave

40

What does the QRS complex indicate?

Ventricular depolarization

41

What is the first positive deflection following the P wave?

R wave

42

What is the second negative deflection following the P wave?

S wave

43

What wave indicates ventricular repolarization?

T wave

44

How long are normal PR intervals?

.12-.20 seconds

45

What does a long PRI indicate?

Delay in the AV node

46

How do you measure the PR interval?

Start at first deflection of p wave
End at final point of PR interval
Don't include QRS complex

47

How do you measure the QRS complex?

Include the beginning of Q wave
End at end of S wave
Do not include ST segment

48

What is the normal time range for QRS complex?

Less than .12 second

49

What are 4 causes for artifact on an EKG

Muscle tremors/shivering
Patient movement
Loose electrodes
60-cycle interference (Effect of other electrical instruments in room)

50

What two waves on an EKG are the refractory period?

QRS wave
T wave

51

What is the relative refractory period?

Small part of the refractory period where some of the charges are polarized and can be depolarizer if the impulse is strong enough

52

What is the refractory period?

Period when the heart is unable to respond to an impulse

53

What are the two refractory periods called?

Absolute refractory period
Relative refractory period

54

What is the absolute refractory period?

When absolutely no impulse can cause depolarization

55

When is the relative refractory period?

Downward slope of T wave

56

When is the absolute refractory period?

QRS interval until the apex of T wave

57

Where is the positive electrode placed?

Apex of heart

58

Where is the negative electrode placed?

Below right clavicle

59

Where is the ground electrode placed?

Below left clavicle

60

What are four of the most common major categories arrhythmias?

Sinus
Atrial
Junction
Ventricular

61

A normal healthy heart would be and what rhythm?

Normal sinus rhythm

62

What should the R wave correspond with?

Pts pulse

63

What does regularly irregular mean?

There's a pattern of irregularity

64

What does basically regular mean?

There's a regular rhythm with a beat or two that interrupts it

65

What does totally irregular mean?

There's no pattern at all

66

How do you determine if a rhythm is regular?

Measure RRI

R to R interval

67

To find the rate of a rhythm how much do you divide the total of the small squares?

1500

68

To find the rate of a rhythm how much do you divide the total of the large squares?

300

69

What does supraventricular mean?

Activity occurring above the ventricles

70

What part of the heart conductive system is the fail safe mechanism?

The AV node

71

What does fail safe mechanism mean?

The AV node protects the ventricles from having to respond to too many impulses from the atria

72

A QRS of less than .12 second is what in origin?

Supraventricular

73

What occurs if there is a conduction disturbance in the ventricles?

A wide QRS complex

74

What is afterload?

Resistance heart must pump against

75

What is preload?

The pressure on the ventricles at end of resting phase

76

What are four things preload is influenced by?

Blood return to heart
Total volume of blood
Total perfusion
Action of the atria