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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Emergencies Deck (72)
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What is a murmur? What does it indicate?

Abnormal whooshing sound heard over heart
Indicators turbulent blood flow within heart

1

What is a bruit? What does it indicate?

Abnormal whooshing sound heard over main blood vessel
Indicates turbulent flow within blood vessel

2

What is a bruit usually a sign of?

Localized arteriosclerotic disease

3

What is arteriosclerotic disease?

Thickening or hardening of arteries

4

What is atherosclerosis?

Disorder in which cholesterol and other fatty substances build up and form plaque inside walls of blood vessels

5

What is angina pectoris?

When heart tissue isn't getting enough oxygen and causes chest pain for a brief time

6

What is angina pain described as?
I

Crushing
Squeezing
Someone standing on my chest

7

Chronotroptic state refers to?

Hearts rate

8

Dromotropic state refers to?

Hearts conduction

9

Inotropic state refers to?

Hearts strength of contraction

10

What supplies oxygen and nutrients to the heart?

Coronary arteries

11

What is a class of clot busting drugs used to remove plaque from the coronary artery?

Fibrinolytics

12

What are three ways pain from an AMI differs from angina?

May or may not be caused by exertion
Doesn't resolve in a few minutes
May or may not be relieved

13

What are two classes of drugs that will help cardiogenic shock?

Inotropics
Antiarrhythmias

14

What happens during congested heart failure?

The heart fails to pump blood effectively and it backs up into the pulmonary veins

15

What color sputum occurs with pulmonary edema?

Pink frothy sputum

16

Chronic pedal edema may indicate what?

Underlying heart disease (right sides heart failure)

17

How should you position a patient with congestive heart failure?

Sitting up
Not laying down

18

What is cardiomegaly?

Enlarged heart

19

What can continued hypertension lead to?

Stroke

20

What are some signs of hypertension?

Vertigo
Epistaxis
Tinnitus
Vision changes
Nausea
Seizures

21

What are four drugs used or cardiac chest pain?

Oxygen
Aspirin
Nitroglycerin
Morphine

22

What does the left coronary artery subdivide into?

Left anterior descending artery
Circumflex coronary artery

23

What electrolyte flows into the cell to initiate depolarization?

Sodium (NA+)

24

What electrolyte flows out of the cell to initiate repolarization?

Potassium (K+)

25

Hypokalemia can lead to what?

Increased myocardial irritability

26

Hyperkalemia can lead to what?

Decreased automaticity/conduction

27

Hypocalcemia can lead to what?

Decreased contractility and increased myocardial irritability

28

Hypercalcemia can lead to what?

Increased contractility

29

Which electrolyte maintains depolarization and involved in heart tissue contraction?

Calcium (Ca++)