Basal ganglia and Cerebellum Flashcards Preview

Neurology > Basal ganglia and Cerebellum > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basal ganglia and Cerebellum Deck (32):
1

Where is the primary motor cortex found?

The precentral gyrus in the frontal cortex

2

What are the 3 lobes of the cerebellum?

Anterior lobe
Posterior lobe
Flocculus

3

What fissures are present in the cerebellum?

Primary fissure
Horizontal fissure

4

What is the falx cerebri?

Infolding or dura which does between the great longitudinal fissure

5

Where does the cerebellum sit in context with the dura?

Posterior cranial fossa under the tentorium cerbelli

6

How is the cerebellum connected to the brainstem?

Via 3 peduncles of white matter:
Superior, middle and inferior cerebellar peduncle

7

What is the vermis?

The central zone of the cerebellum

8

How many deep nuclei are present in the cerebellum and what is the function?

4: only part of the cerebellum that communicates with the brainstem and thalamus

9

What are the 3 layers to the cerebellum histologically?

Granule (inner)
Purkinje (middle)
Molecular (outer)

10

What are the afferent projections to the cerebellum?

Spinal cord, from somatic proprioceptors and pressure receptors
Cerebral cortex relayed via the pons
Vestibular apparatus via vestibular nuclei

11

What are the efference projections of the cerebellum?

All 3 lobes, the only output is via the axons of the purkinje cells which will synapse on neurones of the deep cerebellar nuclei to coordinate all motor tracts

12

What 3 motor tracts will the cerebellum coordinate?

Corticospinal
Vestibulospinal
Rubrospinal

13

Where will the neurones go once they have reaches the deep cerebellar nuclei?

Decussate to synapse in the thalamus
Thalamus will then sent fibres to the motor cortex

14

What results in bilateral cerebellar dysfunction?

Slowed, slurred speech (dysarhria)
Cerebellar ataxia

15

Which side of the body do cerebellar hemispheres influence?

The ipsilateral side

16

What will occur in a midline lesion of the cerebellum - spinocerebellum?

Disturbance of postural control

17

What occurs with a lesion in the vestibulocerebellum?

Vestibular disturbances

18

What is the functions of the basal ganglia?

Facilitate purposeful movement
Inhibit unwanted movement
Role in posture and muscle tone

19

What is the basal ganglia made up of?

Caudate nucleus
Putamen
Globus pallidus
Subthalamic nucleus
Substantia nigra

20

What makes up the striatum?

Caudate nucleus
Putamen

21

What makes up the corpus striatum?

Caudate nucleus
Putamen
Globus pallidus

22

What makes up the lenticular nucleus?

Putamen
Globus pallidus

23

Where can the caudate nucleus be found?

Directly inferior to the lateral ventricles

24

What does the substantia nigra make?

Dopamine

25

What is the end result of the direct pathway in the basal ganglia?

Enhances outflow of the thalamus, enhancing desired movement

26

What is the end result of the indirect pathway in the basal ganglia?

Inhibits outflow of the thalamus
Indirectly goes to the subthalamic nucleus

27

On what side of the body will unilateral lesions of the basal ganglia affect?

Contralateral side of the body

28

What will lesions of the basal ganglia cause?

Changes in muscle tone
Dyskinesias:
Tremor
Chorea
Myoclonus

29

What is the pathology of parkinson's disease?

Degeneration of dopaminergic neurones of the substantia nigra

30

What are the signs of parkinson's disease?

Akinesia
Rigidity
Resting tremor

31

What is the pathogenesis of huntington's disease?

Autosomal dominant progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex

32

What are the signs of huntington's disease?

Chorea
Progressive dementia