Clinical anatomy of cranial nerves Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Clinical anatomy of cranial nerves Deck (57):
1

What runs in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone?

Olfactory nerve

2

What is the contents of the optic canal of the sphenoid bone?

Optic nerve and the ophthalmic artery

3

In what bone is the superior orbital fissure?

Sphenoid

4

What runs in the SOF?

Lacrimal nerve
CN V1
Superior ophthalmic vein
CN 4
CN 3
CN 6
Inferior ophthalmic vein

5

What runs in the foramen rotundum?

Maxillary nerve

6

What runs in the foramen ovale?

Mandibular nerve

7

What runs in the internal acoustic meatus?

Facial nerve
Vestibulocochlear nerve
Vestibular ganglion
Labyrinthe artery

8

What runs in the jugular foramen?

Inferior petrosal sinus
Glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve and spinal accessory nerve
Sigmoid sinus

9

In what bone is the internal acoustic meatus?

Petrous part of temporal bone

10

In what bone is the hypoglossal canal?

Occipital bone

11

What runs in the hypoglossal canal?

Hypoglossal nerve

12

What runs in the foramen magnum?

Medulla
Meninges
Vertebral arteries
Anterior and posterior spinal arteries
Dural veins

13

What runs in the foramen spinosum?

Middle meningeal artery

14

Where will the optic nerve connect with the CNS?

Diencephalon at the lateral geniculate nucleus where it will then radiate to the visual cortex at the occipital lobe

15

How can the optic nerve be tested?

Acuity - snellen
Colour - ishihara
Fields
Reflexes
Fundoscopy

16

Where does the oculomotor nerve originate?

Midbrain

17

What are the contents of the cavernous sinus?

Oculomotor nerve
Trochlear nerve
Ophthalmic branch of trigeminal nerve
Maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve
Internal carotid artery
Abducens nerve

18

Where does the trochlear nerve originate?

Midbrain

19

Where does the abducens nerve originate?

Pontomedullary junction

20

How are CN 3,4 and 6 tested?

H test - eye movements

21

Where does the vestibulocochlear nerve originate?

Pontomedullary junction

22

How is the vestibulocochlear nerve tested?

Rinne
Weber

23

Describe rinne and weber testing?

Rinne - hold infront of ear and then on mastoid. In conducive hearing loss, you will hear better when on mastoid whereas in sensorineural you will hear better in air
Weber - hold tuning fork on head - sensorineural it will lateralise to normal ear but in conduction it will go towards affected ear

24

Where does the spinal accessory nerve originate on the CNS?

Cervical spinal cord - top 4 segments

25

How is the spinal accessory nerve tested?

Shug shoulders = trapezius
Turn head to flex neck and turn head towards opposite side

26

Where does the hypoglossal nerve connect with the CNS?

Via many rootlets lateral to the pyramids of the medulla oblongata

27

Where will the hypoglossal canal descend?

Lateral to the carotid sheath
At level of hyoid, tuns anteriorly towards lateral aspect of tongue

28

What is the medullary olive?

Inferior olive - cerebellar system
Superior orlive - pons and part of the auditory system, aiding the perception of sound

29

What innervates the palatoglossus muscle?

Vagus nerve

30

How is the hypoglossal nerve tested?

Stick tongue straight out
If there is unilateral pathology - the tongue tip will point towards the injured nerve
The Tongue tells the Truth

31

Which division of the trigeminal nerve provides sensory and motor innervation?

Only mandibular division

32

What part of the brain does the trigeminal nerve come off?

Pons

33

Where does the trigeminal nerve run in the brain?

Inferior to edge of tentorium cerebelli between post and middle cranial fossa

34

What type of neurones will the trigeminal sensory have?

Pseudounipolar = SENSORY NEURONES

35

What is the sensory distribution of CN V1?

Upper eyelid
Cornea (corneal reflex)
Conjunctiva
Skin of root/bridge/tip of nose

36

What is the sensory distribution of CN v2?

Skin of lower eyelid
Skin over maxilla
Skin over ala of nose
Skin of upper lip

37

What is the sensory distribution of CN V3?

Skin over mandible and TMJ

38

What supplies the angle of the mandible?

Greater auricular nerve; C2,3

39

What is the deep sensory territory of V1?

Bones and soft tissues of orbit
Upper anterior nasal cavity
Paranasal sinuses except the maxillary sinus
Anterior and posterior cranial fossa

40

What is the deep sensory territory of V2?

Lower posterior nasal cavity
Maxilla and maxillary sinus
Floor of nasal cavity/ palate
Maxillary teeth and assoc soft tissues

41

What is the deep sensory territory of V3?

Middle cranial fossa
Mandible
Anterior 2/3rds of tongue
Floor of mouth
Buccal mucosa
Mandibular teeth

42

What is the CN V3 motor supply?

Masseter
Temporalis
Medial Pteygoid
Lateral pteygoid
Tensor veli palatini
Tensor tympani

43

Where does the facial nerve connect to the CNS?

Pontomedullary junction

44

What is the course of somatic motor facial nerve axons?

Pass through internal acoustic meatus and then through the stylomastoid foramen
Pass into the parotid gland to then supply muscles of facial expression

45

What is the action of the chorda tympani?

Taste buds to anterior 2/3rds of tongue
Parasymp to submandibular and sublingual glands

46

What muscle in the inner ear does the facial nerve supply?

Stapedius muscle

47

What is the function of the lingual nerve?

V3 to supply general sensation to the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue

48

What are the muscles of facial expression?

Frontalis
Orbicularis oris
Elevators of lips
Orbicularis oculi

49

Where does the glossopharyngeal nerve originate on the CNS?

Medulla oblongata

50

What is the general sensory actions of the glossopharyngeal nerve?

Posterior 1/3rd of tongue
Mucosa of most of nasopharynx and oropharynx
Mucosa of some of laryngopharynx
Palatine tonsil
Eustachian tube
Middle ear cavity

51

What is the special sensory action of the glossopharyngeal nerve?

Vallate papillae on post 1/3rd of tongue

52

What is the parasymp action of the glossopharyngeal nerve?

Parotid gland

53

What are the visceral afferent actions of the glossopharyngeal nerve?

Carotid sinus
Baroreceptors
Carotid body chemoreceptors

54

What is the somatic motor action of the glossopharyngeal nerve?

Stylopharyngeus

55

Where does the vagus nerve connect with the CNS?

Medulla oblongata

56

Where will the vagus nerve run within the neck?

Within the carotid sheath
Posterior to and between the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein

57

Describe the differences between the left and right recurrent laryngeal nerves?

Left hooks under arch of aorta
Right hooks under right subclavian