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Flashcards in Stroke Deck (42)
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1

What are the different types of haemorrhagic stroke?

Structural abnormality
Hypertensive
Amyloid angiopathy

2

What are the different types of infarct stroke?

Cardioembolic
Small vessel
Atheroembolic

3

What are the features of a POCI?

CN deficit with contralateral hemiparesis or sensory deficit
OR
Bilateral stroke
OR
Disorders of conjugate eye movement
OR
Isolated cerebellar stroke
OR
Isolated homonymous hemianopia

4

What are the features of a TACI?

NEED ALL 3:
New higher cerebral function dysfunction: dysphasia, dyscalculia, apraxia, neglect, visuospatial problems
Homonymous visual field defect
Ipsilateral motor and/ or sensory deficit of at least two areas of face, arm and leg

5

What are the features of a PACI?

Two of 3 components of TACI
OR
Isolated dysphasia or other cortical dysfunction
OR motor/ sensory loss more limited than for a LACI

6

What are the features of a LACI?

Pure motor OR pure sensory deficit affecting two of face, arm and leg
Sensorimotor stroke (basal ganglia and internal capsule)
Ataxic hemiparesis (cerebellar type ataxia with ipsilateral pyramidal signs; internal capsule or pons)
OR
Dysarthria plus clumsy hand
OR
Acute onset movement disorders (hemichorea, hemiballismus; basal ganglia)

7

Which stroke has the worst outcomes?

TACI; total anterior circulation infarction

8

What are lacunar strokes associated with?

Hypertx
Diabetes
Smoking etc

9

What does the left side of the brain control?

Motor and sensory of right side
Language centers
Reasoning
Written language
Number skills

10

What does the right hemisphere control?

Motor and sensory of left body
Creativity
Music
Artistic awareness
Spatial awareness; neglect syndrome

11

What is the 1st line investigation in carotid disease?

USS for narrowing

12

What should be done if narrowing of the carotid vessels is seen on USS?

CTA or MRA

13

What is the threshold of narrowing for referral for carotid endarterectomy?

50-99%

14

What is type 1 small vessel disease?

Arteriosclerotic;
Fibrinoid necrosis
Liophylaniosis
Microatheroma
Microaneurysm

15

What is type 2 small vessel disease?

Sporadic and hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy

16

What is type 3 small vessel disease?

Genetic small vessel disease; CADASIL

17

What is type 4 small vessel disease?

Inflammatory and immunologically mediated:
eGPA, GPA

18

What is type 5 small vessel disease?

Venous collagenosis

19

What is type 6 small vessel disease?

Post radiation angiopathy

20

What are the MRI expressions of small vessel disease?

White matter hyperintensities
Microbleeds
Leukoaraiosis

21

What conditions result in cardioembolic strokes?

AF; 50%
Acute MI
Prosthetic valves
Ventricular thrombus
Rheumatic heart disease

22

Why can PFO result in a stroke?

Due to patent foramen ovale; venous clots can pass from the venous to arterial side and travel up to the brain

23

What is the treatment for PFO?

If it causes a stroke in a younger patient; surgical closure and clopidogrel

24

Why can arterial dissection result in a stroke?

Exposure of underlying collagen
Clot formation

25

What is the treatment for arterial dissection?

Treat like normal stroke
Give antiplatelets OR anticoags
Recan after 6 months to see if abnormality persists; if it does then continue antiplatelets, if it has completely healed with no structural abnormalities then antiplatelets can be stopped

26

What can cause a primary intracerebral haemorrhage?

Hypertx
Amyloid angiopathy

27

What can cause a secondary intracerebral haemorrhage?

AVM
Aneurysm
Tumour

28

What does a peripheral and lobar haemorrhage suggest?

Amyloid angiopathy

29

What does a deep, central haemorrhage suggest?

Hypertensive in nature

30

What is early haematoma expansion?

Continued arterial bleeding
Secondary bleeding into perilesional tissue
Subsequent perilesional oedema