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Flashcards in Overview of nervous system Deck (27):
1

What is the diencephalon?

The thalamus and hypothalamus

2

What makes up the brainstem?

Midbrain
Pons
Medulla oblongata

3

What is a neurone?

The "communicators" of the nervous system. They receive information via synapses, integrate the information and then transmit information via electrical impulses to another neuron or effector cell

4

What is the structure of the majority of neurones?

Multipolar with many dendrites and one axon

5

What type of neurone does sensory innervation use?

Pseudounipolar neurone

6

What are the different types of glial cells in the CNS?

Astrocytes
Oligodendrocytes
Microglia
Ependymal cells

7

What is the function of astrocytes?

Support
Maintaining BBB
Environmental homeostasis

8

What is the function of oligodendrocytes?

Produce myelin in the CNS

9

What is the function of microglial cells?

Similar lineage to macrophages; hematopoietic origin
Immune monitoring and antigen presentation

10

What is the function of ependymal cells?

Ciliated cuboidal/columnar epithelial cells that line the ventricles

11

What fissure separates the 2 hemispheres?

Great longitudinal fissure

12

What makes up white matter?

Axons - mostly myelinated and their support cells

13

What does a myelin sheath allow electrical impulses in axons do?

Jump over the node of ranvier resulting in a much quicker conduction than unmyelinated cells

14

What is an example of a demyelinating disease?

MS

15

What makes up grey matter?

Neural cell bodies - soma
Cell processes
Synapses
Support cells

16

What is the precentral gyrus?

In Front of the central sulcus
Location of primary motor cortex

17

What is the postcentral gyrus?

Behind the central gyrus
Location of primary somatosensory cortex

18

What does the calcarine sulcus demarcate?

The visual cortex

19

What is the corpus callosum?

Connection of white matter between left and right hemispheres

20

Describe the position of the frontal lobe

Ant to the central sulcus
Superior to the lateral sulcus

21

Describe the position of the parietal lobe

Posterior to the central sulcus
Superior to the lateral sulcus
Anterior to a line from the parieto-occipital sulcus to the preoccipital notch

22

Describe the position of the occipital lobe

Posterior to a line from the parieto-occipital sulcus to the preoccipital notch

23

Describe the position of the temporal lobe

Inferior to the lateral sulcus
Posteriorly by a line from the parieto-occipital sulcus and the preoccipital notch

24

What role does the insular lobe have?

Pain perception

25

What are the 3 layers of meninges?

Dura mater
Arachnoid mater
Pia mater

26

What is contained within the subarachnoid space?

CSF

27

Where are neurones of the enteric nervous system found?

Myenteric plexus between outer layers of smooth muscle
Submucosal plexus in submucosa