Flashcards in Dementia Deck (52)
What encompasses cognition?
Social functioning (judgement, evaluation, reasoning)
Language (comprehension and production of language)
Executive function (problem solving, decision making)
Formation and knowledge of memory
What is the clinical definition of dementia?
Evidence of significant cognitive decline in at least 1 cognitive domain (attention, executive, learning and memory, perceptuo-motor or social cognition)
PLUS: cognitive deficits interfering with independence of everyday activities
PLUS: not better explained by another process/ do not occur exclusively in the context of delirium
What are acute cognitive disorders?
What are the symptoms of viral encephalitis?
What are the symptoms of acute cognitive disorder in the context of head injury?
What are the clinical features of transient global amnesia?
Abrupt onset antegrade more than retrograde amnesia
Preserved knowledge of self
Always less than 24 hours
Generally a once off
What are triggering factors for transient global amnesia?
Emotion/ changes in temp
What are the clinical features of transient epileptic amnesia?
Forgetful/ repetitive questioning
Can carry out complex activities with no recollection of events
Short lived (20-30 mins)
What is transient epileptic amnesia associated with?
Temporal lobe seizures
What is the differential for sub-acute cognitive disorders?
Toxins; alcohol, carbon monoxide
Metabolic: B12, calcium, thyroid
Infection: HIV, syphilis
Inflammatory: limbic encephalitis
What are the clinical features of functional cognitive impairment?
Everyday forgetfullness impacting on functioning
Fluctuation of symptoms
Mismatch between: symptoms + reported function/ symptoms _ symptoms of known neurodegenerative disorders
What is the treatment for functional cognitive impairment?
Exclude a mood disorder
Refer to neuropsychology
What is the most common prion disease?
What are the 4 subtypes to CJD?
What causes variant CJD?
Exposure to BSE
What can be seen in histology of CJD?
What can be seen in the CSF of CJD?
What is the commonest dementia syndrome?
What is the pathology behind alzheimer's disease?
Neurodegenerative amyloid proteinopathy
Disruption of cholinergic pathways in the brain + synaptic loss results in extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrialty tangles
Which proteinopathy is assoc with alzheimer's disease?
What are the initial symptoms of alzheimer's disease?
Which areas of the brain are most commonly affected by alzheimer's disease?
Medical hippocampus and lateral parietal lobes (apraxia and visuospatial difficulties)
What will posterior cortical atrophy result in?
Commonly referred from ophto
What are the different types of progressive primary aphasia?
What investigations should be ordered in alzheimer's disease?
MRI; atrophy of temporal/ parietal lobes
SPECT; temporoparietal decreased metabolism
CSF: decreased amyloid: increased TAU
What is the treatment for alzheimer's disease?
Address vascular risk factors
ACh boosting: cholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine)
NMDA receptor blockers; memantine
What ages will be affected by frontotemporal dementia?
Early onset; before age 65
What will be seen on pathology in FTD?
Which protein is involved in the progression of FTD?
Tau and ubiquitin