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Flashcards in Dementia Deck (52)
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1

What encompasses cognition?

Attention
Social functioning (judgement, evaluation, reasoning)
Language (comprehension and production of language)
Executive function (problem solving, decision making)
Formation and knowledge of memory

2

What is the clinical definition of dementia?

Evidence of significant cognitive decline in at least 1 cognitive domain (attention, executive, learning and memory, perceptuo-motor or social cognition)
PLUS: cognitive deficits interfering with independence of everyday activities
PLUS: not better explained by another process/ do not occur exclusively in the context of delirium

3

What are acute cognitive disorders?

Viral encephalitis
Head injury
Stroke

4

What are the symptoms of viral encephalitis?

Memory
Behaviour change
Language

5

What are the symptoms of acute cognitive disorder in the context of head injury?

Attention
Memory
Executive function

6

What are the clinical features of transient global amnesia?

Abrupt onset antegrade more than retrograde amnesia
Preserved knowledge of self
Always less than 24 hours
Generally a once off

7

What are triggering factors for transient global amnesia?

Emotion/ changes in temp

8

What are the clinical features of transient epileptic amnesia?

Forgetful/ repetitive questioning
Can carry out complex activities with no recollection of events
Short lived (20-30 mins)

9

What is transient epileptic amnesia associated with?

Temporal lobe seizures

10

What is the differential for sub-acute cognitive disorders?

Toxins; alcohol, carbon monoxide
Neurodegeneration: CJD
Metabolic: B12, calcium, thyroid
Infection: HIV, syphilis
Functional
Mood disorders
Inflammatory: limbic encephalitis

11

What are the clinical features of functional cognitive impairment?

Everyday forgetfullness impacting on functioning
Fluctuation of symptoms
Mismatch between: symptoms + reported function/ symptoms _ symptoms of known neurodegenerative disorders

12

What is the treatment for functional cognitive impairment?

Exclude a mood disorder
Refer to neuropsychology

13

What is the most common prion disease?

CJD

14

What are the 4 subtypes to CJD?

Sporadic
Variant
Iatrogenic
Genetic

15

What causes variant CJD?

Exposure to BSE

16

What can be seen in histology of CJD?

Spongiform change

17

What can be seen in the CSF of CJD?

14-3-3
S100b
RT-QuIC

18

What is the commonest dementia syndrome?

Alzhemiers

19

What is the pathology behind alzheimer's disease?

Neurodegenerative amyloid proteinopathy
Disruption of cholinergic pathways in the brain + synaptic loss results in extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrialty tangles

20

Which proteinopathy is assoc with alzheimer's disease?

Amyloid

21

What are the initial symptoms of alzheimer's disease?

General forgetfulness

22

Which areas of the brain are most commonly affected by alzheimer's disease?

Medical hippocampus and lateral parietal lobes (apraxia and visuospatial difficulties)

23

What will posterior cortical atrophy result in?

Visuospatial disturbance
Commonly referred from ophto

24

What are the different types of progressive primary aphasia?

Semantic
Logopenic aphasia
Non-fluent aphasia

25

What investigations should be ordered in alzheimer's disease?

MRI; atrophy of temporal/ parietal lobes
SPECT; temporoparietal decreased metabolism
CSF: decreased amyloid: increased TAU

26

What is the treatment for alzheimer's disease?

Address vascular risk factors
ACh boosting: cholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine)
NMDA receptor blockers; memantine

27

What ages will be affected by frontotemporal dementia?

Early onset; before age 65

28

What will be seen on pathology in FTD?

Pick body

29

Which protein is involved in the progression of FTD?

Tau and ubiquitin

30

What are the presentations of FTD?

Frontal features; disinhibition, apathy, loss of empathy, stereotyped or compulsive behaviours, hyperorality
Early loss of innsight