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Flashcards in Pattern Recognition (revision) Deck (53)
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1

Describe hyperkinetic movement disorders

Dystonia
Tics
Myoclonus
Chorea
Tremor

2

Describe hypokinetic movement disorders

Parkinsons; rigidity and bradykinesia

3

What is the pattern of weakness in MND?

UMN and LMN signs
Absence of sensory symptoms
+/- frontotemporal dementia

4

Inflammatory muscle disorders

Poly/deramatomyositis
Inclusion body myositis
Vasculitis
RA
Sjogren's

5

Endocrine muscle disorders

Hypothyroidism
Cushing's
Electrolyte disturbances
Hypophosphatemia
Hypocalcemia
Hypernatraemia/ hyponatraemia

6

Drugs/toxins causing muscle disorders

Illicit drugs; cocaine, heroin
Alcohol
Corticosteroids
Colchicine
Antimalarial drugs
Stains
Penicillamine

7

Infections causing muscle disorders

Viral; influenza, parainfluenza, coxsackie, HIB, CMG, echovirus, adenovirus, EBV
Bacteria
Fungal
Parasitis

8

Rhabdomyolysis causing muscle disorders

Crush trauma
Seizures
Alcohol absuse; hyperkinetic state with delirium tremens
Exertion
Vascular surgery
Malignant hyperthermia

9

Which muscle, nerve and nerve root are responsible for shoulder abduction?

M: deltoid
N: axillary
NR: C5

10

Which muscle, nerve and nerve root are responsible for elbow extension?

M: triceps
N: radial
NR: C7

11

Which muscle, nerve and nerve root are responsible for finger extension?

M: extensor digitorum
N: radial
NR: C7

12

Which muscle, nerve and nerve root are responsible for index finger abduction?

M: 1st dorsal interosseous
N: Ulnar
NR: T1

13

Which muscle, nerve and nerve root are responsible for hip flexion?

M: iliopsoas
N: femoral
NR: L1,2

14

Which muscle, nerve and nerve root are responsible for knee flexion?

M: hamstrings
N: sciatic
NR: S1

15

Which muscle, nerve and nerve root are responsible for ankle dorsiflexion?

M: tibialis anterior
N: common fibular and sciatic
NR: L4,5

16

Which muscle, nerve and nerve root are responsible for great toe dorsiflexion?

M: EHL
N: common fibular
NR: L5

17

Main deep tendon reflexes and oot innervation

Biceps/ supinator: C5,6
Triceps: C7,8
Knee: L3,4
Ankle: S1,2

18

What does a glove and stocking sensory loss indicate?

Length dependent neuropathy

19

What does a sensory level sensory loss indicate?

Spinal cord lesion

20

What does a hemianesthesia sensory loss indicate?

Contralateral cerebral lesion

21

What is a dissociated sensory loss indicate?

Loss of spinothalamic but preserved DCML; anterior spinal artery syndrome, brown sequard or syringomyelia

22

Extrapyramidal symptoms

Bradykinesia
Rigidity
Resting tremor
Shuffling gait
Stooped posture
Hypomimia
Hypophonia
Reduced arm swing
Impaired postural reflexes
Asymmetry in PD, symmetry in DI

23

Main function of frontal lobe

Executive function
Prefrontal cortex connects to the basal ganglia, limbic system, thalamus and hippocampus

24

Frontal lobe dysfunction

Personality disorder
Disinhibition
Paraparesis
Paratonia
Frontal gait dysfunction
Cortical hand
Seizures
Incontinence
Visual field defects - homonymous hemianopia
Expressive dysphagia - broca's area
Anosmia

25

Temporal lobe dysfunction

Episodic memory dysfunction
Agnosia
Receptive aphasia; wernicke's area
Superior quadrantanopia
Auditory dysfunction; as hearing is bilateral deafness is NOT a cerebral feature
Limbic dysfunction
Temporal lobe epilepsy

26

Parietal lobe dysfunction

Inferior homonymous quadrantanopia
Visuospatial dysfunction
Gerstmann's syndrome
Dyspraxia
Inattention
Denial

27

What is gerstmann's syndrome?

Dominant lobe; dysgraphia, left-right disorientation, finger agnosia, acalculia

28

Treatment protocol for PD

Symptomatic; levodopa or dopamine agonist
MDT including speech and language, OT, PT, exercise
Deep brain stimulation

29

Drugs used in PD

Levodopa; crosses BBB
Dopamine agonists; acts on D2 receptors
MAO-B inhibitors; improve symptoms in those with mild disease
Anticholinergics for tremor
Amantadine; blocks NMDA receptors

30

Imaging in stroke

MRI T1/T2 and FLAIR for old lesions and lesions of non-vascular origin
T2 to identify bleeds and microbleeds
CT: hyperintense; bleed. Ischaemic; loss of lentiform nucleus, poor grey white matter differentiation, loss of insular ribbon