Flashcards in Pattern Recognition (revision) Deck (53)
Describe hyperkinetic movement disorders
Describe hypokinetic movement disorders
Parkinsons; rigidity and bradykinesia
What is the pattern of weakness in MND?
UMN and LMN signs
Absence of sensory symptoms
+/- frontotemporal dementia
Inflammatory muscle disorders
Inclusion body myositis
Endocrine muscle disorders
Drugs/toxins causing muscle disorders
Illicit drugs; cocaine, heroin
Infections causing muscle disorders
Viral; influenza, parainfluenza, coxsackie, HIB, CMG, echovirus, adenovirus, EBV
Rhabdomyolysis causing muscle disorders
Alcohol absuse; hyperkinetic state with delirium tremens
Which muscle, nerve and nerve root are responsible for shoulder abduction?
Which muscle, nerve and nerve root are responsible for elbow extension?
Which muscle, nerve and nerve root are responsible for finger extension?
M: extensor digitorum
Which muscle, nerve and nerve root are responsible for index finger abduction?
M: 1st dorsal interosseous
Which muscle, nerve and nerve root are responsible for hip flexion?
Which muscle, nerve and nerve root are responsible for knee flexion?
Which muscle, nerve and nerve root are responsible for ankle dorsiflexion?
M: tibialis anterior
N: common fibular and sciatic
Which muscle, nerve and nerve root are responsible for great toe dorsiflexion?
N: common fibular
Main deep tendon reflexes and oot innervation
Biceps/ supinator: C5,6
What does a glove and stocking sensory loss indicate?
Length dependent neuropathy
What does a sensory level sensory loss indicate?
Spinal cord lesion
What does a hemianesthesia sensory loss indicate?
Contralateral cerebral lesion
What is a dissociated sensory loss indicate?
Loss of spinothalamic but preserved DCML; anterior spinal artery syndrome, brown sequard or syringomyelia
Reduced arm swing
Impaired postural reflexes
Asymmetry in PD, symmetry in DI
Main function of frontal lobe
Prefrontal cortex connects to the basal ganglia, limbic system, thalamus and hippocampus
Frontal lobe dysfunction
Frontal gait dysfunction
Visual field defects - homonymous hemianopia
Expressive dysphagia - broca's area
Temporal lobe dysfunction
Episodic memory dysfunction
Receptive aphasia; wernicke's area
Auditory dysfunction; as hearing is bilateral deafness is NOT a cerebral feature
Temporal lobe epilepsy
Parietal lobe dysfunction
Inferior homonymous quadrantanopia
What is gerstmann's syndrome?
Dominant lobe; dysgraphia, left-right disorientation, finger agnosia, acalculia
Treatment protocol for PD
Symptomatic; levodopa or dopamine agonist
MDT including speech and language, OT, PT, exercise
Deep brain stimulation
Drugs used in PD
Levodopa; crosses BBB
Dopamine agonists; acts on D2 receptors
MAO-B inhibitors; improve symptoms in those with mild disease
Anticholinergics for tremor
Amantadine; blocks NMDA receptors