Block 2 high yield Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Block 2 high yield Deck (97):
1

alpha/beta T cells

bind MHC I and II

2

gamma/delta T cells

bind dirctly w/o MHC

protect mucosal surfaces

3

T cell

IFN-y

angry mac's

Th1

4

like Th1 but more powerful

Th17

5

Th's promote healing

Th2

6

Th's

help B-cells activate and class switch

Thf

7

Th's

IL-10

Tregs

8

APC --- T cell binding

first signal molecules

APC MHC ---- TCR (CD8 or CD4)

9

APC --- T cell co-stim

APC B7 (CD 80/86) ---- T cell CD28

10

APC ---- T cell

adhesion

APC ICAM 1/3 ----- T cell LFA-1

11

2 general T cell activators

IL-2

IL-15

12

Th1 activators

IL-12

INF-y

13

Th2 activator

IL-4

14

down regulates Th1's

IL-10

15

down regulates Th1's and 2's

TGF-B

16

FAS

target cell receptor inducing caspase --> apoptosis

17

FAS ligand

T-cell molecule --> binds FAS --> apoptosis of target cell

18

most abundant Ig

crosses placenta

IgG

19

first, biggest Ig

IgM

20

B cell membrane Ig....that's all

IgD

21

Ig in secretions

IgA

22

Ig attaches to Mast cells

IgE

23

IgE mediated hypersensitivity

Type 1

24

Automimmune Ig mediated hypersensitivity

Type 2

25

Immune complex mediates hypersensitivity

Type 3

26

T-cell mediated hypersensitivity

Type 4

27

No B-cells

X-linked agammaglobulinemia

28

failure of Ig class switching

CD40 ligand def

or

Activation induced Cytidine deaminase def

29

failure to produce Ig's against certain antigens

common variable immunodeficiency

30

VDJ recombination failure... no BCR or TCR

Omenn Syndrome

31

failure to produce mature T-cells

X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

32

failure of thymus development

DiGeorge Syndrome

33

CD8/NKs don't release granules

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

34

point mutation in B-globin chain

Sickle cell

35

Howell-Jolly bodies

Sickle cell

36

Pappenheimer bodies

Sickle cell

37

Can't make enough a or B globin

Thalassemia

38

Morphology of thalassemia

hypochromic

microcytic

39

Basophilic stippling

thalassemia

40

Demographic for a-thalassemia

Asians, blacks

41

Demographic for B-thalassemia

Mediterranean

Asian

Black

42

Bite cells

G6PD deficiency

43

Heinz bodies

G6PD deficiency

44

Schistocytes

microangiopathic hemolytic anemia

**severely deformed cells

45

Triangulocytes

MAHA

microangiopathic hemolytic anemia

46

Fe absorption OK

...release of Fe screwed up due to overproduction of...

...HEPCIDIN

can't get Fe into Hgb

Anemia of Chronic Disease

47

Three labs to differentiate ACD from IDA:

ACD:
-dec TIBC
-inc ferritin
-inc marrow storage Fe

IDA:
-inc TIBC
-dec ferritin
-dec marrow storage Fe

48

lack of EPO
ESRD

ECHINOCYTES (spiny RBCs)

Anemia of Renal Disease

49

Pancytopenia

Empty Marrow

usually idiopathic

Aplastic anemia

50

C4b2a

C3 convertase

51

Complement proteins that covalently bind bacteria

C4b
C3b

52

C4b2a3b

C5 convertase

53

Complement pathway activated by antigen-antibody complexes:

Classical

54

Complement pathway activated by polysaccharides on microbes:

Mannose-binding lectin pathway

55

Complement pathway activated by LPS, foreign surfaces, nucleophiles:

Alternative

56

C1q, C1r, C1s, C4, C2

Classical pathway

57

MBL
MASP-1
MASP-2

Mannose binding lectin pathway

58

C3
H20
Factor B
Factor D
Properdin

Alternative pathway

59

C5, C6, C7, C8, C9

Terminal lytic pathway

MAC attack (Neisseria)

60

Ig's involved in Classical pathway?

IgG (2)

IgM

61

Protects human cells from C3b binding:

sialic acid

62

C3bBb

Alternative pathway's C3-convertase

63

Stabilizes C3bBb

Properdin

64

C3bBbC3b

Alternative pathway's C5-convertase

65

CD59

Protectin

inhibits binding of C9

66

Binds C3bBb floating around and dissociates the Bb

Factor H

67

Uncontrolled complement activation leading to consumption of C4 and C2:

C1 Inh deficiency

**inhibits C1 esterase which cleaves C4/C2

68

CD35

CR1

Transport of immune complexes by RBC

69

Transport of immune complexes by RBC

CR1 (CD35) --- binds C3b

70

binds C3d, C3dg, iC3b

on B cells, activated T cells, epithelial cells

increases humoral immunity

high affinity for EBV

CR2 (CD21)

71

CR3
CR4

cell adhesion

72

Rh factor refers to which antigen?

D

73

In massive hemorrhage, transfuse with:

Whole blood

74

In low hgb, transfuse with:

Red cells

75

to reduce alloimmunization and allergic rxns, transfuse with:

Leukocyte-reduced Red-cells

76

Storage of rare blood types:

Frozen Red Cells

77

In sepsis and neutropenic patients, transfuse:

Granulocytes

78

In bleeding due to thrombocytopenia, transfuse with:

Platelets

79

In bleeding due to multiple factor deficiencies, transfuse with:

Fresh Frozen Plasma

80

low fibrinogen, vW disease, hemophilia A, factor XIII deficiency, transfuse with:

Cryoprecipitate

81

hemophilia A, transfuse with:

factor VIII

82

hemophilia B, transfuse with:

factor IX

83

hypovolemia, hypoproteinemia, transfuse with:

albumin

84

disease prophylaxis, AI disease, immune deficiency states, transfuse with:

IvIg

85

Adding antibodies and then anti-anitbody antibodies to patients red cells:

Forward type

86

adding reagent red cells to patient serum, then adding AHG:

Reverse type

87

H+ decrease
P-CO2 decrease
Temp decrease

with regards to hgb-O2 binding.

increases affinity

curve shifts left

88

H+ increase
P-CO2 increase
temp increase
BPG increase

with regards to hgb-O2 binding.

decreased affinity

curve shifts right

89

benzocaine

methemoglobin

90

Acites in cirrhosis due to:

reduced protein
oncotic pressure sends fluid out of vessels

91

defect in RBC cytoskeleton

hereditary spherocytosis

92

Prevention for hemolytic disease of the newborn:

Rhogam

93

Tx for jaundice newborn:

phototherapy

94

Tx in severe HDN:

exchange transfusion

95

Causes of mature lymphocytosis:

infectious

Bordetella pertussis

transient stress

96

causes of reactive lymphocytosis

infectious mono

peds viral infx

viral hepatitis

immune disorders

97

Basophilia

CML
CML
CML