Block 3 high yield Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Block 3 high yield Deck (103):
1

Fibrinoid necrosis

Type ? hypersensitivity

Type 3

2

granuloma with central necrosis

caseating

ie. TB

3

HER-2/NEU overexpression

breast cancer

4

KRAS mutation

colorectal cancer

5

N-MYC gene amplification

neuroblastoma

6

t(8;14)

Burkitt Lymphoma

7

t(9;22)

CML

8

BCR-ABL

CML

9

"Two hit" hypothesis

lose BOTH tumor suppressor genes

10

Rb mutation

13q14

retinoblastoma

11

APC tumor supressor gene

colorectal carcinoma

12

BCRA1/BCRA2

breast
ovary
prostate

cancers

13

molecular "policeman"

p53

14

high glucose use by cancer cells

Warburg Effect

15

t(14;18)

overexpressed BCL-2

B-cell lymphoma

16

immortality of cancer cells -- evasion of mitotic crisis

maintenance of telomeres

17

Th1's polarized by:

IL-12

IL-18

INF-y

18

Th1's secrete:

INF-y

TNF

19

Th17's polarized by:

TGF-B

IL-1

IL-6

IL-23

20

Th17's secrete:

IL-17

IL-22

21

Th2's polarized by:

IL-4

22

Th2's secrete:

IL-4

IL-5

IL-13

23

Tfh's polarized by:

IL-6

IL-21

24

Thf's secrete:

IL-4

IL-21

25

Treg's polarized by:

IL-2

TGF-B

26

Treg's secrete:

IL-10

TGF-B

27

No Treg's?

IPEX

out of control T-cells

28

T-bet

Th1

29

GATA3

Th2

30

RORyt

Th17

31

Bcl-6

Tfh

32

FOXP3

Treg

33

Always high MHC II

Always high CD80/86 (B7)

dendrites

34

need activation to express:

MHC II

costim molecules

macrophages

35

always express MHC II

need activation to express co-stim molecules

B cells

36

LFA-1 (leukocyte functional antigen) binds:

ICAM-1

37

CD2 binds:

LFA-3 (on APC)

38

TCR chain needing V, J

alpha

39

TCR chain needing V, D, J

beta

40

HLA-A, B, C

MHC I

41

HLA-B27

ankylosing spondylitis

42

HLA-DR2

MS

hay fever

narcolepsy

SLE

43

HLA-A3/B14

hemochromatosis

44

HLA-DQ2/GQ8

Celiac disease

45

HLA-DR3

DM I

Grave's Disease

46

HLA-DR4

RA

DM I

47

HLA-B53

protection against childhood malaria

48

Malignancy of hematopoietic cells, starts in bone marrow:

leukemia

49

Malignancy of hematopoietic cells, starts in lymph nodes:

lymphoma

50

Leukemia occurring only in adults

Chronic

51

% blast cell requirement for dx of AML?

20%

52

M0-M3

neutrophil series

53

M4-5

monocytic series

54

M6

erythroid series

55

M7

megakaryocytic series

56

LOTS of myeloblasts

MPO negative

AML-M0

57

LOTS of myeloblasts

AUER rods

MPO positive

no maturation

AML-M1

58

kind of a lot of myeloblasts

maturing neuts

t(8;21) = better prognosis

AML-M2

59

LOTS of promyelocytes

TONS of AUER rodes (FAGGOT cells)

t(15;17) in all cases

DIC

AML-M3

60

lots of myeloblasts

lots of monocytic cells

Extramedullary tumor masses

inv(16) = better prog

AML-M4

61

increased monocytic cells

NSE positive

extramedullary tumor masses

AML-M5

62

inc erythroblasts

increased myeloblasts

dyserythropoesis

AML-M6

63

inc megakaryoblasts

bland blasts

MPO negative

need markers

AML-M7

64

t(8;21)

M2, good prog

65

inv(16)

M4, good prog

66

t(15;17)

M3, good prog

67

11q23

monocytic, bad prog

68

FLT-3

tyrosine kinase

monocytic

poor prog

69

severe pancytopenia

chromosome 5,7 abnormalities

AML with multilineage dysplasia

70

Atra

pre-chemo for t(15;17)

71

teenage male with mediastinal mass

ALL

T-Lymphoblastic

72

TdT+

B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma

73

worse prog for ALL

T-cell

74

good prog age for ALL

1-10

75

good WBC count for ALL

76

good cytogenetics for ALL

hyperdiploidy

77

Malaria deaths in a year world wide?

655,000

78

Most common Plasmodium species?

vivax

falciparum

79

Life stage of plasmodium that infects hepatocyte:

Sporozoite

80

Life stage of Plasmodium infects RBC?

merozoite

81

life cycle of Plasmodium in RBC:

merozoite --> trophozoite --> schizont --> merozite

82

most deadly Plasmodium

falciparum

83

hepatic relapse species of Plasmodium:

vivax

ovale

84

banana gametocytes

P. falciparum

85

rosette merozoites

P. malariae

86

BIG red cells

Schuffner's dots

P. ovale and vivax

87

forms RBC rosettes

P. falciparum

88

knobbs on RBC surface

bind to endothelial cells

PFEMP

89

Quotidian

P. falciparum

90

Tertian

P. vivax or ovale

91

Quartan

P. malariae

92

gold standard dx for malaria

blood smear

93

TONS of rings in RBC

P. falciparum

94

Tx for latent malaria infx:

Primaquine

95

Prevents FPIX --> hemozoin

keeps cell toxic for plasmodium killing

Chloroquine

96

Malaria drug

eye damage, blindness

chloroquine

97

used in chloroquine resistant P. falciparum

Quinine

Quinidine

98

Cardiac probs

Quinidine

99

Neuropsychiatric reactions

Mefloquine

100

Inhibits parasite e transport

Atovaquone

101

Inhibits parasite DHFR

proguanil

102

Produces free radicals to damage parasite proteins

Artemisinins

103

Long 1/2 life

use with artemether

Lumefantrine