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Neurology > Brain Tumours > Flashcards

Flashcards in Brain Tumours Deck (58)
1

What are the 2 general types of brain tumour?

Primary
Secondary metastatic

2

In primary tumors, what are the different type?

Glioblastoma
Meninges
Pituitary

3

What are the commonest tumours which spread to the brain?

Renal cell
Breast
Lung
Malignant melanoma
GI tract

4

What is the most common type of brain tumour?

Metastatic brain tumours

5

What cells are gliomas derived from?

Astrocytes

6

What stage is a GBM?

Stage IV

7

What are classed as primary malignant tumours?

Gliomas

8

In which meningeal layer do meningiomas usually present

Arachnoid

9

Where fo meningiomas usually present in the brain?

Along falx, convexity or sphenoid bone

10

Are meningiomas curable?

Yes by surgical excision

11

What is the common signs of pituitary adenoma?

Optic field defect - bitemporal hemianopia

hormone imbalance

12

What are the clinical presentations of a brain tumour?

Raised intracranial pressure
Focal neurological signs
Epileptic fit
CSF obstruction

13

What are the main symptoms of raised ICP?

Headache
Nausea/ vomiting
Diploia or blurred vision
Drowsiness
Cognitive impairment
Alter consciousness

14

What are the signs of raised ICP?

Papilloedema
3rd nerve palsy
6th nerve palsy
Altered consciousness

15

What is a RED FLAG sign of raised intracranial pressure?

Headache - worse in morning

16

What investigations would you do if suspected brain tumour?

CT scan (brain)
MRI
PET

CXR
Biopsy - skin or lymph
Mammography

17

What are some focal neurological deficits which may be observed?

Dysphagia
Hemiparesis
Hemianopia
Cognitive impairment
Cranial nerve palsy
Endocrine disorders

18

Patient presents with ataxia & incoordination, where is the lesion?

Cerebellum

19

Right handed patient presents with acalculia, agraphia, finger agnosia, left/ right confusion, where is the lesion?

Left parietal lobe

20

If patient presents with bitemporal hemianopia, where is the lesion?

Pituitary

21

If right handed patient presents with difficulty reading, difficulty expressed self, short term memory loss, where is the lesion?

Left temper-parietal area

22

What are the main management goals?

Reduce size of tumour (debunk)
Improve focal neurological signs

23

What type of management is available?

Steroids
Anticonvulsants
SuRgery
Radiotherapy

24

Are GBM operable?

Yes but not curative only debulk or biopsy

25

What treatment would be administered in someone with metastatic brain tumours?

Surgery
Radiotherpay

26

What is the prognosis for GBM?

1 YRS

27

What is the prognosis for meningioma?

Commonly cured with surgery

28

What is the prognosis for metastatic disease?

Medium term remission

29

Why do you NOT perform lumbar puncture in someone with brain tumour?

Risk of herniation syndrome and patient death

30

What tumours are classed as primary benign?

Pituitary adenoma
Meningioma

31

What are the presenting signs of brain tumour?

Raised ICP - nausea, headache, drowsiness
Focal neurological signs
Cognitive impairment

32

What are the names of the dural sheets which divide the brain?

Falx cerebri
Tentorium cerebelli

33

What are the localised lesion causes of increased intracranial pressure?

Haemtoma (haemorrhage)
Tumour
Abscess

34

What are some of the generalised causes of increased ICP?

Oedema post trauma

35

What are localised lesions also referred to as?

Space Occupying Lesions (SOL)

36

What types of herniation can occur what increased ICP?

Uncal herniation
Subfalcine (midline shift)
Coning - cerebellotonsillar herniation

37

Why is it called a subfalcine shift?

Falcine means falx therefore below falx cerebri

38

In an uncle herniation what happens?

Brain herniates inferiorly below tentorium

39

Cerebellar tonsil herniation causes what?

Brain stem death

40

What are some of the initial signs & symptoms of Increased ICP?

Morning headache & nausea
Papilloedema

41

What are some of the progressive signs of increased ICP?

Pupillary dilation
Falling GCS score
Brainstem death

42

What are the different types of gliomas?

Glioblastoma
Astrocytoma
Oligodendroctoma
Ependymoma

43

What is the cell type found in medulloblastomas?

Embryonic neural cells

44

What are meningiomas formed from?

Arachnoid cell

45

What tumours occur from nerve sheath cell?

Neurofibroma
Schwannoma

46

What tumour arises from blood vessels?

Haemangioblastoma

47

Which tumour type is a malignant childhood tumour?

Medulloblastoma

48

Where do the majority of brain tumours occur in adults/children?

Above tentorium
Below tentorium

49

Which cells do gliomas descend from?

Glial cells

50

Are gliomas malignant or benign?

Malignant

51

Which cells are glioblastomas formed from?

Astrocytes

52

What shape do astrocytes look like?

Star shaped

53

Where are medulloblastomas usually found?

In posterior fossa, in children

54

Are meningiomas benign or malignant?

Malignant

55

Where are schwannomas found?

Peripheral nerve sheaths

56

What is an acoustic neuroma?

Schwannoma of the 8th cranial nerve

57

What is the main sign of an acoustic neuroma?

Unilateral hearing loss

58

What is a pituitary adenoma?

Benign tumour of the pituitary gland