Flashcards in Brain Tumours Deck (58)
What are the 2 general types of brain tumour?
In primary tumors, what are the different type?
What are the commonest tumours which spread to the brain?
What is the most common type of brain tumour?
Metastatic brain tumours
What cells are gliomas derived from?
What stage is a GBM?
What are classed as primary malignant tumours?
In which meningeal layer do meningiomas usually present
Where fo meningiomas usually present in the brain?
Along falx, convexity or sphenoid bone
Are meningiomas curable?
Yes by surgical excision
What is the common signs of pituitary adenoma?
Optic field defect - bitemporal hemianopia
What are the clinical presentations of a brain tumour?
Raised intracranial pressure
Focal neurological signs
What are the main symptoms of raised ICP?
Diploia or blurred vision
What are the signs of raised ICP?
3rd nerve palsy
6th nerve palsy
What is a RED FLAG sign of raised intracranial pressure?
Headache - worse in morning
What investigations would you do if suspected brain tumour?
CT scan (brain)
Biopsy - skin or lymph
What are some focal neurological deficits which may be observed?
Cranial nerve palsy
Patient presents with ataxia & incoordination, where is the lesion?
Right handed patient presents with acalculia, agraphia, finger agnosia, left/ right confusion, where is the lesion?
Left parietal lobe
If patient presents with bitemporal hemianopia, where is the lesion?
If right handed patient presents with difficulty reading, difficulty expressed self, short term memory loss, where is the lesion?
Left temper-parietal area
What are the main management goals?
Reduce size of tumour (debunk)
Improve focal neurological signs
What type of management is available?
Are GBM operable?
Yes but not curative only debulk or biopsy
What treatment would be administered in someone with metastatic brain tumours?
What is the prognosis for GBM?
What is the prognosis for meningioma?
Commonly cured with surgery
What is the prognosis for metastatic disease?
Medium term remission
Why do you NOT perform lumbar puncture in someone with brain tumour?
Risk of herniation syndrome and patient death
What tumours are classed as primary benign?
What are the presenting signs of brain tumour?
Raised ICP - nausea, headache, drowsiness
Focal neurological signs
What are the names of the dural sheets which divide the brain?
What are the localised lesion causes of increased intracranial pressure?
What are some of the generalised causes of increased ICP?
Oedema post trauma
What are localised lesions also referred to as?
Space Occupying Lesions (SOL)
What types of herniation can occur what increased ICP?
Subfalcine (midline shift)
Coning - cerebellotonsillar herniation
Why is it called a subfalcine shift?
Falcine means falx therefore below falx cerebri
In an uncle herniation what happens?
Brain herniates inferiorly below tentorium
Cerebellar tonsil herniation causes what?
Brain stem death
What are some of the initial signs & symptoms of Increased ICP?
Morning headache & nausea
What are some of the progressive signs of increased ICP?
Falling GCS score
What are the different types of gliomas?
What is the cell type found in medulloblastomas?
Embryonic neural cells
What are meningiomas formed from?
What tumours occur from nerve sheath cell?
What tumour arises from blood vessels?
Which tumour type is a malignant childhood tumour?
Where do the majority of brain tumours occur in adults/children?
Which cells do gliomas descend from?
Are gliomas malignant or benign?
Which cells are glioblastomas formed from?
What shape do astrocytes look like?
Where are medulloblastomas usually found?
In posterior fossa, in children
Are meningiomas benign or malignant?
Where are schwannomas found?
Peripheral nerve sheaths
What is an acoustic neuroma?
Schwannoma of the 8th cranial nerve
What is the main sign of an acoustic neuroma?
Unilateral hearing loss