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Flashcards in Brain Tumours Deck (58)
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1

What are the 2 general types of brain tumour?

Primary
Secondary metastatic

2

In primary tumors, what are the different type?

Glioblastoma
Meninges
Pituitary

3

What are the commonest tumours which spread to the brain?

Renal cell
Breast
Lung
Malignant melanoma
GI tract

4

What is the most common type of brain tumour?

Metastatic brain tumours

5

What cells are gliomas derived from?

Astrocytes

6

What stage is a GBM?

Stage IV

7

What are classed as primary malignant tumours?

Gliomas

8

In which meningeal layer do meningiomas usually present

Arachnoid

9

Where fo meningiomas usually present in the brain?

Along falx, convexity or sphenoid bone

10

Are meningiomas curable?

Yes by surgical excision

11

What is the common signs of pituitary adenoma?

Optic field defect - bitemporal hemianopia

hormone imbalance

12

What are the clinical presentations of a brain tumour?

Raised intracranial pressure
Focal neurological signs
Epileptic fit
CSF obstruction

13

What are the main symptoms of raised ICP?

Headache
Nausea/ vomiting
Diploia or blurred vision
Drowsiness
Cognitive impairment
Alter consciousness

14

What are the signs of raised ICP?

Papilloedema
3rd nerve palsy
6th nerve palsy
Altered consciousness

15

What is a RED FLAG sign of raised intracranial pressure?

Headache - worse in morning

16

What investigations would you do if suspected brain tumour?

CT scan (brain)
MRI
PET

CXR
Biopsy - skin or lymph
Mammography

17

What are some focal neurological deficits which may be observed?

Dysphagia
Hemiparesis
Hemianopia
Cognitive impairment
Cranial nerve palsy
Endocrine disorders

18

Patient presents with ataxia & incoordination, where is the lesion?

Cerebellum

19

Right handed patient presents with acalculia, agraphia, finger agnosia, left/ right confusion, where is the lesion?

Left parietal lobe

20

If patient presents with bitemporal hemianopia, where is the lesion?

Pituitary

21

If right handed patient presents with difficulty reading, difficulty expressed self, short term memory loss, where is the lesion?

Left temper-parietal area

22

What are the main management goals?

Reduce size of tumour (debunk)
Improve focal neurological signs

23

What type of management is available?

Steroids
Anticonvulsants
SuRgery
Radiotherapy

24

Are GBM operable?

Yes but not curative only debulk or biopsy

25

What treatment would be administered in someone with metastatic brain tumours?

Surgery
Radiotherpay

26

What is the prognosis for GBM?

1 YRS

27

What is the prognosis for meningioma?

Commonly cured with surgery

28

What is the prognosis for metastatic disease?

Medium term remission

29

Why do you NOT perform lumbar puncture in someone with brain tumour?

Risk of herniation syndrome and patient death

30

What tumours are classed as primary benign?

Pituitary adenoma
Meningioma