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Flashcards in Degenerative Disease Deck (28)
1

What are common features of Neurodegenerative diseases?

Aetiology unknown
Gradual onset
Loss of neurons
Late onset

2

What is the definition of dementia?

A syndrome consisting of progressive impairment of multiple domains of cognitive function in alert patients leading to loss of acquired skills & interference in social & occupational role

3

What are the main risk factors for dementia?

Age
Alcohol
Genetic?

4

What are some of the causes of late onset dementia?

Alzheimers
Lewy Body
Vascular

5

What are some of the causes of ealry onset dementia?

Alzheimers
Vascular
Frontotemporal
Other

6

What are some of the OTHER causes of early onset dementia?

Alcohol
Genetic (Huntingtons)
Infection (HIV, CJD)
Inflammatory (MS)

7

What are some of the treatable causes of dementia?

Vit B12 deficiency
Endocrine - thyroid disease
Infective - HIV

8

What are some differentials associated with dementia?

Hydrocephalus (NP)
Depression
Tumour

9

What investigations may be done in dementia?

Bloods
CT/MRI
LP - CSF for inflammatory markers
EEG

10

What tests may you carry out on examination?

MMSE
MOCA
Neuropsychological test

11

What domains of cognitive function does the MOCA test?

Memory
Attention
Laguage
Visuospatial
Behaviour
Emotion
Executive function
Apraxias
Agnosias

12

What are some clues to diagnosing dementia?

Cognitive decline
Slow progression

13

In which type of dementia would a stepwise progression be observed?

Vascular

14

Which type of dementia is associated with Parkinsons?

Lewy Body

15

What is the commonest neurodegenerative condition?

Alzheimers

16

What symptoms will temporo-parietal dementia present with?

Early memory disturbance
Language & visuospatial problems
Personality preserved

17

What symptoms will be observed in fronts-temporal dementia?

Early change in personality & behaviour
Early dysphagia
Memory relatively preserved

18

What non-pharmacological treatments can be supplied for dementia patient?

Information & support
Social work
Occupational therapist

19

What specific pharmacological treatments can be given for Alzheimers disease?

Anticholinsterases (Donepezil, rivastigmine)

NMDA antagonist (mematine)

20

What treatment can be given in FT dementia?

None

21

What is Parkinsons disease?

A clinical syndrome with >2 of:
Bradykinesia
Tremor
Ridigity
Postrural Instability

22

Where is pathology observed in the brain of Parksinsons?

Loss of dominergic neurons in Basal ganglia

23

What are some of the causes of Parkinsons?

Idiopathic Parkinsons disease
Drug induced
Vascular parkinsons

24

What age does Parkinsons usually present?

70/80s

25

What helps to confirm diagnosis of parkinson's?

Symptoms (bradykinesia & other symptom)
Response to dopamine replacement therapy

26

What type of medication can be given to parkinson's patient?

Levadopa
COMT inhibitor
MOAB inhibitor
Dopamine agonist

27

When can motor fluctuations be observed in parkinson's patient?

When Levodopa wears off

28

What parkinson's drugs can be administered in continuous infusion?

Duodopa
Apomorphine