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Flashcards in Cranial nerves Deck (114)
1

How many cranial nerves are there?

12 pairs

2

What do parasympathetic nerves innervate?

Glands, smooth muscle

3

Is there any sympathetic outflow from the skull?

No

4

What nerve fibres are present in olfactory nerve?

Special sensory

5

What nerve fibres are present in optic nerve?

Special sensory

6

What nerve fibres are present in oculomotor nerve?

Motor
Parasympathetic

7

What nerve fibres are present in trochlear nerve?

Motor

8

What nerve fibres are present in trigeminal nerve?

Motor
Sensory

9

What nerve fibres are present in abducens nerve?

Motor

10

What nerve fibres are present in facial nerve?

Motor
Sensory
Parasympathic

11

What nerve fibres are present in vestibulocochlear nerve?

Special sensory

12

What nerve fibres are present in glossopharyngeal nerve?

Sensory
Motor
Parasympathetic

13

What nerve fibres are present in vagus nerve?

Sensory
Motor
Parasympathetic

14

What nerve fibres are present in spinal accessory nerve?

Motor

15

What nerve fibres are present in hypoglossal nerve?

Motor

16

Where does the olfactory nerve fibres pass through the skull?

Cribiform plate of ethmoid

17

What is the name for lost sense of smell?

Anosmia

18

An increase in ICP can result in which eye condition?

Papillodema

19

A lesion at the optic chiasm will result in what type of visual field loss?

Bitemporal hemianopsia

20

A lesion at the right optic tract will result in what type of visual field loss?

left homonymous hemianopsia

21

Which foramen does the optic nerve pass through?

Optic foramen

22

Where do the retinal nerve fibres synapse?

Lateral geniculate body

23

Where does the oculomotor nerve originate?

Midbrain

24

Where does the oculomotor emerge from the skull?

Superior orbital fissure

25

What does the oculomotor supply in the eye?

Extraocular muscles & eyelid
Constricts pupil (circular muscles) & accommodates lens (ciliary muscle)

26

If the oculomotor is lesioned, what will be observed?

Ptosis (eyelid drooping)
Eyeball abducted and pointing down
No pupillary reflex
No accommodation

27

Where does the trochlear nerve exit the skull?

Superior orbital fissure

28

What does the trochlear nerve supply?

Superior oblique (turns eye down)

29

What happens is the trochlear nerve is lesioned?

Diplopia (On looking down)

30

Where does the abducent nerve originate?

Pons

31

Where does the abducent nerve exit the skull?

Superior oblique fissure

32

What does the abducent nerve supply?

Lateral rectus muscle

33

If the abducens nerve is lesioned what happens?

Medial deviation of eye causing diplopia

34

Where does the trigeminal emerge from?

Pons

35

Where does the trigeminal (ophthalmic) nerve exit the skull?

Superior orbital fissure

36

What does V1 supply?

Sensory to cornea, forehead, scalp, eyelids & mucosa of nasal sinuses

37

Where does the V2 division of the trigeminal nerve exit the skull?

Foramen rotundum

38

What does the V2 nerve supply?

Sense to the face of maxilla, teeth, TMJ joint & mucosa of maxillary sinuses

39

Where does the V3 branch of trigeminal nerve exit the skull?

Foramen ovale

40

What does the V3 branch of the trigeminal supply?

Sense to mandible, mucosa of mouth & anterior 2/3rds of tongue
Muscles of mastication

41

If the trigeminal nerve is lesioned what are the clinical signs?

Paralysis of muscles of mastication
loss of corneal reflex
loss of face sensation
trigeminal neuralgia

42

Where does the facial nerve originate?

Pontomedullary junction

43

Where does the facial nerve travel?

Internal acoustic meatus and out via the stylomastoid foramen

44

What does the facial nerve supply?

Muscles of facial expression
Innervation of submandibular & submental salivary glands
taste to anterior 2/3rd of tongue
General sensory - external acoustic meatus

45

If the facial nerve is lesioned what clinical signs can be observed?

Bell's palsy (cannot close eyelid, drooping of mouth)

46

What nerve is the most frequently injured?

Facial nerve

47

Where does the vestibulocochlear nerve originate?

Pontomedullary junction

48

Where does the vestibulocochlear nerve exit the skull?

Internal acoustic meatus

49

What are the clinical signs observed with a lesion of nerve VIII?

Tinnitus
Deafness
Vertigo
Nystagmus (involuntary rapid eye movements )

50

Where does the glossopharyngeal nerve originate?

Medulla

51

Where does the glossopharyngeal nerve exit the skull?

Jugular foramen

52

What does the glossopharnygeal nerve supply?

Taste posterior 1/3rd of tongue
sensation for middle ear & posterior oral cavity
innervation of parotid gland
stylopharyngeus innervation

53

When the glossopharyngeal nerve is lesioned, what are the clinical signs?

Loss of gag reflex & taste from back of tongue

54

Where does the vagus nerve exit the skull?

Jugular foramen

55

What does the vagus nerve supply?

Taste for epiglottis
parasympathetic innervation of pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, heart & gut
Motor control to the pharynx, larynx, palate & oesophagus

56

What are some of the branches of vagus nerve?

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

57

What clinical signs will be observed if the vagus nerve is lesioned?

Difficulty swallowing
Hoarse voice

58

Where does the spinal accessory nerve exit the skull?

Jugular foramen

59

What does the spinal accessory nerve supply?

Sternocleidomastoid & trapezius

60

If the spinal accessory nerve is lesioned, what clinical signs will be observed?

Weakness in turning head & shrugging shoulder

61

Where does the hypoglossal nerve exit the skull?

Hypoglossal canal

62

What does the hypoglossal nerve supply?

Muscles of tongue

63

What clinical signs will be observed if the hypoglossal nerve is lesioned?

Deviation of tongue to affected side
Paralysis & muscle atrophy of tongue

64

Which nerves are required for taste?

Facial
Glossopharyngeal
Vagus

65

Which nerves are required for movements of face?

Facial

66

Which nerves are required for chewing?

V3

67

Which nerves are required for swallowing?

Glossopharyngeal
Accessory

68

Which nerves are required for movements of vocal cords?

Vagus

69

Which nerves have visceral sensory input?

Vagus
Glossopharyngeal (carotid body & sinus)

70

What are the functions of the cranial nerves?

Special senses
Ordinary sensation
Autonomic
Motor control

71

Which are the nerves of special sense?

I - olfaction
II - vision
XII, IX, X - taste
VIII - hearing

72

What nerves supply sensation to the ear?

VII & IX

73

Which nerve supplies muscles of mastication?

Trigeminal (mandibular branch)

74

Which nerve supplies muscles of facial expression?

Facial

75

Which nerve supplies muscles of pharynx & larynx?

Vagus

76

Which nerves supplies SCM & trapezuis?

Accessory spinal

77

Which nerves carry parasympathetic innervation?

III, VII, IX, X

78

What does parasympathetic activity in III nerve mediate ?

Pupillary constriction

79

What does parasympathetic activity in VII nerve mediate ?

Submandibular & Sublingual salivary gland

80

What does parasympathetic activity in IX nerve mediate ?

Parotid salivary gland

81

What does parasympathetic activity in X nerve mediate ?

Organs of abdomen & thorax

82

What nerves are involved in the pupillary reflex?

II - AFFERENT
III- Efferent

83

What nerves are involved in the corneal reflex?

V- Afferent
VII- efferent

84

What nerves are involved in the jaw jerk reflex?

V - afferent & efferent

85

What nerves are involved in the GAG reflex?

IX afferent
X efferent

86

Which cranial nerve nuclei are found in the midbrain?

III, IV

87

Which cranial nerve nuclei are found in the pons?

V, VI, VII

88

Which cranial nerve nuclei are found in the pontomedullary junction?

VIII

89

Which cranial nerve nuclei are found in the medulla?

IX, X, XI, XII

90

How can cranial nerves be damage?

Ischaemia
Crossing sub-arachnoid space (eg. meningitis)
Outside skull, eg tumours

91

What is the pathology behind optic neuritis? What disease is it associated with?

Demyelination of the optic nerve

MS

92

What are the signs of optic neuritis?

Monocular vision loss
Pain on eye movement
Reduced visual acuity
Reduced colour vision
Swelling of optic disc

93

What can cause dilated pupils?

Dim light
Young
3rd nerve palsy
"Mydriatic" eye drops
Amphetamine & cocaine
Brainstem death (Bilateral)

94

What cause pupils to constrict?

Old age
Bright light
Miotic eye drops
Opiate overdose
Horner's syndrome (sympathetic plexus)

95

What are the microvascular causes of 3rd nerve palsy?
What are the symptoms?

Diabetes & hypertension

Painless & pupil spared

96

What are the compressive causes of 3rd nerve palsy?
What are the symptoms?

Posterior communicating artery aneurysm
Raised ICP

Painful & pupil affected

97

What are the causes of 6th nerve palsy?

Meningitis
Raised ICP
Diabetes

98

Trigeminal neuralgia presents as painful attacks due to the compression of which nerve?

V

99

What is Bell's Palsy?

Idiopathic facial (VII) nerve palsy

100

What is observed with Bell/s palsy?

Unilateral facial weakness
Inability to close eye

101

What are some of the LMN causes of facial nerve palsy?

Bell's palsy
Lymes diseae

102

What are some of the UMN causes of facial nerve palsy?

Stroke
Tumour

103

What will be the signs of UMN facial palsy?

The forehead will be spared

104

What will be the signs of LMN facial palsy?

The whole side of the face will be affected including forehead

105

What are the symptoms of vestibular neuronitis?

Sudden onset of vertigo
Vomiting
Gradual recovery

106

What is dysarthria?

Slurred speech
Disordered articulation

107

What is dysphonia?

Loss of volume of speech

108

What is dysphagia?

Difficulty swallowing

109

What is the difference between bulbar palsy & pseudo bulbar palsy?

Pseudobulbar = UMN
Bulbar = LMN

110

What is the pathology of Pseudobulbar palsy?

Bilateral vascular lesion of the internal capsule

111

What are some of the symptoms/ signs of pseudo bulbar palsy?

Dysarthria
Dysphonia
Dysphagia
Spastic immobile tongue
Brisk jaw & gag reflex

112

What nerves does bulbar palsy affect?

IX-XII

113

Where is the lesion in bulbar palsy?

Bilateral lesion of LMN in brainstem

114

What are some of the symptoms/ signs of bulbar palsy?

Dysarthria
Dysphonia
Dysphagia
Wasted, fasciulcating tongue