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Flashcards in Head injury Deck (26)
1

What is a primary insult to the head?

Focal/diffuse head trauma

2

What is a secondary insult to the head?

Hypotension
Hypoxia
Infection
Haematoma

3

What does GCS assess?

Conscious level of patient

4

What would the GCS be in mild head injury?

13-15

5

What would the GCS be in moderate head injury?

9-12

6

What would the GCS be in severe head injury?

3-8

7

What are the different things that GCS assesses and what are the scores?

Eye opening (4)
Verbal response (5)
Motor response (6)

8

What score will a comatose patient score?

3

9

What are the 5 layers of the Scalp?

Skin
Connective tissue
Aponeurosis
Loose connective tissue
Pericranium

10

What consists of the hindbrain? Where are they found in the skull?

Cerebellum & brainstem
Posterior cranial fossa

11

What is the foramen which the medulla oblongata moves through?

Foramen magnum

12

What are the different areas of the skull base called?

Anterior/ Middle/ Posterior fossa

13

What type of skull fracture will form if there is a focal impact?

Depressed fracture

14

What type of skull fracture will form if there is a fall onto side or top of head?

Linear fracture

15

What type of fracture occurs if it is fragmented?

Mosaic

16

What type of skull fracture encircles the foramen magnum? What causes it?

Ring fracture
Fall from height, landing on feet

17

What is a contra-coupe fracture?

A fracture that occurs to orbital plate after falling on back of head

18

Where do extradural haemorrhages usually occur from?

Middle meningeal artery (pterion)

19

In which type of haemorrhage is a lucid interval observed?

EDH

20

Where does bleeding occur from in subdural haemorrhage?

Bridging veins

21

In whom do SDHs occur?

Those with atrophic brains eg elderly, babies & alcoholics

22

Where does bleeding occur in SAH?

Usually from ruptured berry aneurysm in cerebral artery

23

Traumatic Basal SAH is usually a result of what?

Sudden forceful rotation of head resulting in rupture of vertebro-basilar system (killer punch)

24

A coup contusion will occur where?

Following head trauma at the point of impact

25

A contre-coup contusion will occur when?

Following head trauma, will occur opposite site of impact

26

What situation is traumatic diffuse axonal injury associated with?

Road traffic accident