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Flashcards in Diseases of spinal cord Deck (57)
1

What are disorders of the spinal cord called?

Myelopathies

2

What are diseases of the nerve root called?

Radiculopathies

3

Diseases of the UMN are called _____

Myelopathies

4

Diseases if LMNs are called _____

Radiculopathies

5

What are the signs of UMN lesion?

Weakness
Increased tone (spasticity)
Increased reflex
Positive Babinski reflex

6

What are signs of LMN lesions?

Weakness
Decreased reflexes
Decreased tone
Flexor plantar

7

What syndrome is associated with Hemicord lesion?

Brown - Sequard syndrome

8

What sensory loss will be observed with radiculopathy?

Dermatomal sensory loss

9

If there is C5 lesion, what symptoms will be observed?

Wasting of muscles innervating C5

UMN lesion symptoms will be observed in the lower limbs.
Brisk reflexes
Increased tone (spasticity)
Sensory level

10

What are some of the acquired causes of myelopathy?

Inflammation
Infective
Vascular
Metabolic

11

In ischaemic myelopathy, where is the infract commonly observed?

Anterior spinal artery
Thoracic spine

12

What are some of the causes of spinal cord ischaemia?

Artheromatous disease
Thromboembolic disease
Arterial dissection
Systemic hypotension
Vascultis

13

What ares of the s & s's of spinal cord stroke?

Pain in back, radiating
Weakness - paraparesis
Numbness
Urinary symptoms

14

What treatment can be administered in cases of spinal cord stroke?

Reduce vascular risk factors:
Maintain BP
Antiplatelet therapy

15

What is demyelinating myelitis usually caused by?

Multiple sclerosis

16

What area of the spinal cord does MS affect?

White matter tracts in spinal cord

17

What eye related condition is associated with MS?

Optic neuritis

18

What treatment can be given in MS myelitis?

Steroids
Supportive therapy

19

What is a metabolic cause of myelitis?

Vit B12 deficiency

20

How is VitB12 absorbed from the gut?

By intrinsic factor complex

21

What is pernicious anaemia?

Autoimmune condition whereby ABs are produced against Intrinsic factor preventing B12 absorption

22

How can VitB12 deficiency affect the NS?

Myelopathy
Peripheral neuropathy
Brain
Eye/optic nerve

23

What are the different parts of the intervertebral disc called?

Annulus fibrosis
Nucleus pulposus

24

What are the different ligaments associated with the vertebral column?

Anterior longitudinal ligament
Posterior longitudinal ligament
Ligamentum falvum

25

What type of fibres are present in ventral/dorsal rami?

Mixed - sensory & motor

26

What type of fibres are present in spinal nerve?

Mixed

27

What type of fibres are present in dorsal root?

Sensory

28

What type of fibres are present in ventral root?

Motor

29

Where does the spinal cord extend from/to?

C1-L2

30

What are the signs of an UMN lesion?
Weakness
Atrophy
Reflexes
Tone
Fasciculations
Babinski

Present
Absent
Increased
Increased
Absent
Present (extensor)

31

What are the signs of an LMN lesion?
Weakness
Atrophy
Reflexes
Tone
Fasciculations
Babinski

Present
Present
Decreased
Decreased
Present
Absent (Flexor)

32

Where are LMNs found?

Ventral horn of spinal cor

33

If the spinal cord is lesioned at C5, what will be observed?

Myelopathy (UMN Lesion)
Signs of UMN lesion will be observed in the legs

34

If there is a lesion of the nerve root at L4 what will be observed?

Radiculopathy (LMN lesion)
Numbness in L4 dermatome
Reduced knee jerk reflex
Weakness in ankle dorsiflexion

35

What is a disc prolapse?

An acute herniation of the IV disc causing compression of the spinal roots or cord

36

If there is central IV disc prolapse in the lumbar region what will be observed?

CES

37

If there is central IV disc prolapse in the CERVICAL region what will be observed?

Cervical myelopathy

38

Where are the most common areas in the spine for disc prolapse?

Cervical & lumbar (most mobile)

39

If there is lateral herniation of IV disc what will be observed ?

Radiculopathy

40

What symptoms will be experienced in disc prolapse?

Numbness & weakness in nerve distribution
Acute pain down leg/arm

41

What treatment can be administered for disc prolapse?

Rehabilitation -physio
Nerve root injection
Lumber/ cervical discectomy

42

What are the 3 red flag signs of Cauda Equina?

Bilateral sciatica
Urinary dysfunction
Saddle parasthesia

43

What treatment is required for CES?

Emergency lumber discectomy

44

What is Cauda equine syndrome?

Disc herniation in lumbar region results in compression of the roots

45

What is cervical spondylosis?

Degenerative disease of the cervical spine resulting in spine & nerve root compression

46

In what disease is spinal claudication observed? (pain down both legs)

Lumber spinal stenosis

47

What are the different types of spinal tumours?

Intramedullary
Intradural
Extradural

48

What are some of the causes of intramedullary tumour?

Astrocytoma
Ependymoma

49

What are some of the causes of intradural tumour?

Meningioma
Neurofibroma
Lipoma

50

What are some of the causes of extradural tumour?

Metastasis to bone (lung, prostate & breast)

Primary bone tumours

51

What are the different spinal infections?

Osteomyelitis
Discitis
Epidural Abscess

52

What are the 3 main presenting complaints of epidural abscesses?

Back pain
Pyrexia
Focal neurological - weakness/ numbess

53

What bacterial orgs cause epidural abscesses?

E. coli
S. aureus
Streptococcus

54

What are the risk factors for epidural abscess?

IV DUs
Alcoholics
Chronic kidney disease
Diabetes

55

What is the treatment for epidural abscess?

Surgical decompression
IV ABIs

56

What is osteomyelitis?

Infection of the vertebral body

57

What are the risk factors for osteomyelitis?

Diabetes
IVDU
CKD
Alcoholism
AIDs