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Flashcards in Eye Pathology Deck (90)
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1

What can conjunctivitis be cause by?

Bacterial or viral infection

2

What are some of the symptoms of conjunctivitis?

Red watery eye
Discharge

3

What is the treatment for conjunctivitis?

ABI eye drops

4

If a stye is present externally, what does it affect?

Sebaceous glands on eyelash

5

What is another name for a stye?

Hordeolum

6

What does a stye affect on the inner surface of eyelid?

Meibomian gland

7

Name an inflammatory condition of the cornea

Corneal ulcers

8

Name a non-inflammatory condition of the cornea

Dystrophies

9

What are some of the causes of corneal ulcer?

Infectious - bacteria, fungal, viral infect of cornea

10

Corneal dystrophies usually present with:

Bilateral presentation
Opacifying
Non-inflammatory

11

What is the most common cause of blindness?

Cataracts

12

What is the pathology of cataracts?

Lens opacification

13

What is the main cause of cataract?

UV light - damages lens fibres

14

What surgery can be used to treat cataracts?

Phacoemulsification - plastic lens replaces new one

15

What is the usual intraocular pressure?

21mmHg

16

How is pressure in the eye maintained?

By constant drainage of AH via the Schlemms canal

17

What is glaucoma defined as?

Raised IOP

18

What is the 2nd most common cause of blindness?

Glaucoma

19

What is the most commonly seen form of glaucoma?

Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG)

20

What are some consequences of raised IOP?

Pressure on nerve fibres results in death of optic nerve head

21

In glaucoma, what does the optic nerve head appear like?

Pale, unhealthy & cupped

22

What happens to the visual field in glaucoma?

Loss of peripheral vision

23

What are the triad of signs observed in glaucoma?

Raised IOP (painless)
Visual field defects
Optic disc changes on ophthalmoscopy

24

What can be used to treat POAG?

Eye drops to decrease IOP - prostaglandin analogues, Beta blockers
Laser trabeculoplasty

25

How does angle closure glaucoma present?

Sudden onset, painful loss of vision & headaches

26

What does the eye appear like in AC glaucoma?

Red eye
Cornea opaque

27

What is the pathology of AC glaucoma?

Closure of anterior angle resulting in problems with AH drainage

28

What are the different ways in which angle closure can occur?

Functional block - small eye, large lens
Mid-dilated pupil - outflow obstructed by iris dilation

29

What is the management for AC glaucoma?

Decrease IOP - carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
Constrict pupil - pilocarpine
Antiemetics & analgesics

Iridotomy - laser

30

What usually leads to POAG?

Blockage of trabecular meshwork