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Flashcards in Eye Pathology Deck (90)
1

What can conjunctivitis be cause by?

Bacterial or viral infection

2

What are some of the symptoms of conjunctivitis?

Red watery eye
Discharge

3

What is the treatment for conjunctivitis?

ABI eye drops

4

If a stye is present externally, what does it affect?

Sebaceous glands on eyelash

5

What is another name for a stye?

Hordeolum

6

What does a stye affect on the inner surface of eyelid?

Meibomian gland

7

Name an inflammatory condition of the cornea

Corneal ulcers

8

Name a non-inflammatory condition of the cornea

Dystrophies

9

What are some of the causes of corneal ulcer?

Infectious - bacteria, fungal, viral infect of cornea

10

Corneal dystrophies usually present with:

Bilateral presentation
Opacifying
Non-inflammatory

11

What is the most common cause of blindness?

Cataracts

12

What is the pathology of cataracts?

Lens opacification

13

What is the main cause of cataract?

UV light - damages lens fibres

14

What surgery can be used to treat cataracts?

Phacoemulsification - plastic lens replaces new one

15

What is the usual intraocular pressure?

21mmHg

16

How is pressure in the eye maintained?

By constant drainage of AH via the Schlemms canal

17

What is glaucoma defined as?

Raised IOP

18

What is the 2nd most common cause of blindness?

Glaucoma

19

What is the most commonly seen form of glaucoma?

Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG)

20

What are some consequences of raised IOP?

Pressure on nerve fibres results in death of optic nerve head

21

In glaucoma, what does the optic nerve head appear like?

Pale, unhealthy & cupped

22

What happens to the visual field in glaucoma?

Loss of peripheral vision

23

What are the triad of signs observed in glaucoma?

Raised IOP (painless)
Visual field defects
Optic disc changes on ophthalmoscopy

24

What can be used to treat POAG?

Eye drops to decrease IOP - prostaglandin analogues, Beta blockers
Laser trabeculoplasty

25

How does angle closure glaucoma present?

Sudden onset, painful loss of vision & headaches

26

What does the eye appear like in AC glaucoma?

Red eye
Cornea opaque

27

What is the pathology of AC glaucoma?

Closure of anterior angle resulting in problems with AH drainage

28

What are the different ways in which angle closure can occur?

Functional block - small eye, large lens
Mid-dilated pupil - outflow obstructed by iris dilation

29

What is the management for AC glaucoma?

Decrease IOP - carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
Constrict pupil - pilocarpine
Antiemetics & analgesics

Iridotomy - laser

30

What usually leads to POAG?

Blockage of trabecular meshwork

31

Which type of glaucoma, usually occurs in an emergency?

Angle closure glaucoma

32

Which layer is also called the uvea?

Vascular layer: choroid, ciliary body & iris

33

What is uveitis?

Inflammation of the uvea, can occur anteriorly, intermediate or posteriorly

34

What does anterior uveitis affect?

Iris inflammation

35

What is affected in intermediate uveitis?

Ciliary body

36

What is affected in posterior uveitis?

Choroid inflammation

37

What area of the eye does acute red eye conditions affects?

Anterior segment

38

What examinations would you used in acute red eyes?

Fundoscopy & slit lamp
Staining with fluroscene (abrasion of cornea)

39

What are some of the signs of infective conjunctivitis?

Gritty
Red
Discharge (purulent/watery)

40

What are some of the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis?

Itchy
Red
Discharge
Acute presentation
Lid swelling

41

What can be used to treat allergic conjunctivitis?

Topical antihistamines
Avoid allergen

42

What are some of the symptoms associated with corneal abrasion?

Pain
Watering
Blurred vision
Epithelial defect

43

How can you treat corneal abrasion ?

Analgesia
Topical ABIs

44

What is the pathology associated with cornea abrasion?

Epithelial layer damage

45

What are some of the symptoms associated with anterior uveitis?

Pain
Watering
Photophobia
Blurred vision
Floaters
Red

46

What is a hypopyon?

Pus in the anterior chamber

47

How do you treat anterior uveitis?

Topical steroids
Dilating drops

48

What is scleritis?

Inflammation of the sclera

49

What are some of the symptoms associated with scleritis?

Very painful
Redness (deep sclera vessels)
Tender
Nodule

50

How is scleritis treated?

Systemic steroids

51

What is orbital cellulitis?

Infection of orbital tissue (usually from sinuses)

52

What are some of the symptoms of orbital cellulitis?

Very painful
Redness
Blurred vision
Diplopia
Malaise
Pyrexia
Proptosis
Reduced eye movements

53

What are the treatments for orbital cellulitis?

IV ABIs
CT scan
Drainage of pus

54

What test can be used to assess for macular disease?

Amsler chart

55

What test can be used to visualise vessels in the eye?

Fluorescein angiography

56

What test can be used to visualise the layers of retina?

Optical coherence tomography (OCT)

57

What are some of the risk factors associated with vascular loss of vision?

Smoking
Hypertension
Hyperlipidaemia

58

Name a vascular event that can result in complete sudden loss of vision

Central retinal artery occlusion

59

What will blood flow through retinal arteries look like in central artery occlusion?

Weak & segmented

60

What is the management for central retinal artery occlusion?

Treat risk factors: BP, cholesterol
Intravitreal anti Vegf

61

What are the 2 types of anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy?

Arteritic: Giant cell arteritis
Non-Arteritic

62

What are some of the symptoms associated with giant cell arteritis?

Loss of vision
headache
loss of appetite
scalp tenderness
pain on chewing

63

What are some of the signs of giant cell arteritis?

Raised inflammatory markers
tenderness over superficial temporal artery

64

What is the management for giant cell arteritis?

High dose steroids

65

What are some of the symptoms of non-arteritic ischaemic neuropathy?

Painless visual loss (usually altitudinal)

66

What are the 4 most common causes of visual loss?

Cataract
Glaucoma
Age related macular degeneration
Diabetic retinopathy

67

What are some of the symptoms of cataract?

Gradual visual loss
Dazzle/ glare with bright light

68

In chronic glaucoma or POAG, what are the symptoms?

Assymptomatic
Loss of peripheral field

69

What are some of the symptoms associated with AMD?

Distorsion of images
Loss of central vision

70

What are some of the signs of AMD?

Distorsion of amsler chart
Pigment epithelial changes (fundoscopy)
Spots called - drusen

71

What are the different types of AMD called?

Dry AMD (90%)
Wet AMD (10%) - neovascular

72

What is the characeristic sign of dry AMD?

Drusen present at macula
Atrophy of epithelium

73

What are drusen?

Spots that appear around macula.
Waste products of photoreceptors which accumulate under pigment epithelium

74

What is treatment for dry AMD?

Low vision aids
Registration (visually impaired)

75

Does dry AMD affect one or both eyes?

Both

76

What is the pathology of wet AMD?

Growth of new choroidal vessels

77

What type of imaging is gold standard for diagnosing wet AMD?

Optical coherence tomography (OCT)

78

What is the management for wet AMD?

Intravitreal Vegf
Low vision aids
Registration

79

What are some of the signs of diabetic retinopathy?

Microaneurysms
Retinal haemorrhage & exudates
Neovascularisation

80

What investigators can be used to assess for diabetic retinopathy?

Fluorescein angiography
OCT

81

What management is used in diabetic retinopathy?

Intravitreal Vegf
Laser -panretinal photocoagulation
Low vision aids
Registration

82

What symptoms are observed in cavernous sinus thrombosis?

Red, painful swollen eye
No movement
Loss of vision
Previous infection which could spread intracranially

83

What type of cranial nerve palsy presents with ptosis, eye down & out and pupil dilated?

3rd nerve palsy

84

What conditions are associated with IIIn palsy?

Diabetes (parasympathetic spared)

Cerebral artery aneurysm (no pupillary reflex)

85

What cranial nerve palsy is associated with a medially deviated eye?

Abducent (VI) nerve palsy

86

What cranial nerve palsy is associated with in & up movement of eye?

Trochlear (IV) nerve palsy

87

What is a characteristic sign of retinal detachment?

A curtain coming down across visual field

88

What nerve palsy results in inability to open eyelid?

IIIn palsy

89

What nerve palsy results in inability to close eyelid?

VIIn palsy

90

What is the treatment for a hoerdolum?

Warm compress
Eyelid hygiene