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Flashcards in Stroke Deck (54)
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1

What is the definition of stroke?

A sudden onset of focal or global neurological symptoms caused by ischameia or haemorrhage which lasts >24hrs.

2

What is the most common type of stroke?

Ischaemic

3

How long do symptoms of TIAs usually resolve in?

1-60 mins

4

What is the time period that TIAs are defined by?

Symptoms lasting < 24hrs

5

What are the main causes of ischaemic stroke?

Large artery atherosclerosis
Cardioembolic
Small artery occlusion
Arterial dissection

6

What are the main causes of haemorrhagic stroke?

Primary intracerebral haemorrhage
Secondary (SAH, AV malformation)

7

What imaging would you use in stroke?

CT (acute)
MRI

8

What is the pathophysiology behind an ischaemic stroke?

Failure of cerebral blood flow due to interruption. This causes hypoxia and
Ischaemic penumbra.
When there is no oxygen (anoxia), infarction occurs & cell death.

9

What are some of the modifiable risk factors for stroke?

Smoking
Hypertension
Diet
Cholesterols
Exercise
Obesity
Diabetes

10

What are some of the non-modifiable risk factors for stroke?

> Age
Male
Family history
Previous history of stroke

11

What is the most important modifiable risk factor for stroke?

HYPERTENSION

12

What is the name of the small end arteries?

Lacunar arteries

13

What area of the brain will be affected in a receptive dysphagia?

Wernickes area

14

What area of the brain will be affected in a expressive dysphagia?

Brocas Area

15

If the ACA is blocked, where will symptoms be observed?

Legs

16

IF the MCA is blocked, where will symptoms be observed?

Arms, hands, face

17

What arteries comprise the anterior circulation of the brain? What is their origin

ACA
MCA

ICA

18

What arteries comprise the posterior circulation of the brain? What is their origin

PCA
(2 verebral arteries which form basilar)

3 cerebellar arteries

19

What arteries are responsible for the anatostomoses that comprise the Circle of Willis?

Anterior & posterior communicating arteries

20

Where does the anterior circulation of the brain arise?

ICA

21

What are the symptoms of ACA occlusion?

Contralateral foot & leg paralysis
Sensory loss
Impairment of gait

22

What are some of the symptoms of MCA occlusion?

Contralateral:
Leg/Arm/Face paralysis & loss of sensation
Homonymous hemianopia
Gaze paralysis
Aphasia (if affected dominant hemisphere)
Unilateral neglect & agnosia

23

If a stroke affects the Left side of the brain, what will be observed?

Dysphagia
Homonymous hemianopia
Right sides hemiplegia

24

What artery supplies the internal capsule?

MCA

25

What symptoms will be observed in a stroke on the right side of brain?

Left hemiplegia
Homonymous hemianopia
Visual & sensory agnosia
Anasagnosia
Prosapagnosia

26

What is hemiparesis?

Loss of motor function on one side of body

27

What are some of the symptoms of a lacunar artery stroke?

Pure motor
Pure sensory
Dysarthria
Ataxic hemiparesis

28

What are some of the symptoms of a PCA stroke?

Vertigo
Coma
Nausea, vomiting
Hemiparesis & sensory loss
Visual field defects

29

What are the different stroke classifications?

TACS
PACS
LACS
POCS

30

What is the most effective stroke treatment in first 3 hrs?

Thrombolytic therapy (TPA)