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Flashcards in Neuro Physiology Deck (207)
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1

What are the 3 levels of functional hierarchy observed in motor control?

Strategy - basal ganglia
Tactics - motor cortex & cerebellum
Execution - brainstem & spinal cord

2

What do lateral spinal pathway control?

Voluntary movements of distal muscles

3

What do ventromedial spinal pathways control?

Control posture & locomotion

4

Where does the CS tract cross over?

Medulla

5

What does the right motor cortex control?

Left side (motor control)

6

Where do CST neurons synapse?

Ventral horn

7

Where does the Rubrospinal tract originate?

Red nucleus (midbrain)

8

If a lesion of CST or RST occurs what will be observed?

Fine movements of hands & arms lost

9

If the CST alone is lesioned what will be observed?

Some deficits seen however function will reappear after a few months

10

What is the Brodmanns area associated with motor control?

Area 4

11

What are the 2 ventromedial pathways called?

Vestibulospinal
Tectospinal tracts
Reticulospinal tract

12

What is the vestibulospinal tract responsible for?

Stabilises head & neck

13

What is the tectospinal tract responsible for?

Ensures eyes remain stable as body moves

14

Where do the reticulospinal tracts originate?

Brainstem

15

What is the function of the reticulospinal tracts?

Maintains balance & body posture

16

What muscles does the reticulospinal tract activate?

Trunk muscles
Antigravity muscles

17

Where are LMNs found?

Ventral horn of spinal cord

18

Medial motorneurones will control which muscles?

Axial & proximal limb muscles

19

Lateral motor neurones will control which muscles?

Distal limb muscles

20

What is another name for he primary motor cortex?

Pre-central gyrus

21

What lies in front of the primary motor cortex?

Pre-motor cortex (PMA)

22

Stimulating the right primary motor cortex will result in what?

Twitching of right limb

23

What inputs to the posterior parietal cortex allow knowledge of body in space?

Somatosensory
Proprioceptive
Visual

24

Axons from which 2 brain areas converge on Area 6?

Prefrontal cortex
Posterior Parietal cortex

25

If you only think about carrying out a movement, which are of the brain will become active?

Area 6 - pre-motor cortex

26

What is Area 6 responsible for?

Encodes decried actions and converts this int how to carry them out

27

Where will neuronal stimulation be identified just before a planned movement takes place?

PMA - Premotor cortex

28

In order to perform precise movements, what firing of Abs will be observed in Area 4?

Integrated activity of large population of neurones in M1 will produce precise movements

29

What symptoms/signs will be observed with cortical damage?

Contralateral flaccidity
Hyperreflexia
Babinski reflex - extension
Spasticity
Clonus

30

Describe the loop of information from cortex to basal ganglia

Inputs will move from cortex > thalamus > basal ganglia and back to SMA (AREA 6)