Flashcards in Neuroanatomy Deck (119)
What composes white matter?
What composes grey matter?
Neuronal cell bodies
Where is white matter found?
Spinal cord (outside)
What are the names of the different tracts present?
Within the CNS, what are a collection of cell bodies called?
Within the PNS, what are a collection of cell bodies called?
Where are the lateral ventricles found?
What lies next to the 3rd ventricle?
Where does the cerebral aqueduct lie?
Where does the 4th ventricle lie?
Between pons, medulla & cerebellum
Between which layers is the CSF found?
What produces CSF?
Where is CSF absorbed?
Arachnoid villi into sagittal sinus
Where do the internal carotid arteries enter the skull?
What artery do the vertebral arteries branch off?
Through which foramen do the vertebral arteries go through?
What are the main contributing factors to the Circle of Willis?
What is the function of the Circle of Willis?
Protective mechanism which allows circulation to be maintained to the brain
What area of the brain does the Circle of Willis supply?
The ICA give branches to which arteries?
Which arteries of the C o W supply the largest area of the cerebrum?
What do the 2 vertebral arteries combine to form?
What does the vertebra-basilar system supply?
What does the basilar artery divide into?
Which artery supplies the medial aspect of the cerebrum?
Which artery supplies the occipital lobe? If it is occluded what can it lead to?
Between which 2 layers do the venous sinus lie?
What vein do the venous sinus drain into?
What does the neural tube form from?
What is another name for the forebrain?
What is another name for the midbrain?
What is another name for the hindbrain?
What does the Prosencaphlon form?
What does the Mesencephalon form?
What does the Rhombencephalon form?
What forms the brainstem?
Which cranial nerves arise from the brainstem?
What does the medulla continue as?
What is the name of the medullary area where decussation of fibres occurs?
What lies lateral to the pyramids at the medulla
What connects the medulla & cerebellum?
Inferior cerebellar peduncles
What cranial nerves arise from the medulla?
IX, X, XI, XII
What connects the pons to the cerebellum?
Middle cerebellar peduncles
Which cranial nerves originate from its surface?
V, VI, VII & VIII
What is 2 structures are present at the midbrain?
Superior & Inferior colliculi
What is the function of the superior colliculi?
What is the function of the inferior colliculi?
What peducles are present at the midbrain?
Superior cerebellar peduncle
Which cranial nerves originate from the midbrain?
Which cranial nerve is the only nerve to originate posteriorly?
Trochlear nerve (IV)
What are the name of 2 nuclei found in the midbrain?
What disease is the substantia niarga associated with?
What are the folds & ridges called at the cerebellum?
Sulci & folia
Each cerebellar hemisphere is composed of which lobes?
What connects the 2 cerebellar hemispheres?
What matter are the cerebellar peduncles composed of?
Where is the grey/white matter found on the cerebellum?
Grey matter (surface)
White matter (deep)
What is the risk associated with increased intracranial pressure & cerebellar tonsils?
Herniation of cerebellar tonsils
What is the function of the cerebellum?
Coordination & balance
If there is an abnormality at the cerebellum, what is a sign that could be observed?
What are the structures of the diencephalon?
What is the function of the thalamus?
Sensory relay centre
What is the role of the hypothalamus?
Homeostatic control of temperature, thirst, appetite, sleep/wake cycle & endocrine control.
What is the function of the brainstem?
Control vital signs (respiratory centre)
What are the 2 divisions of the motor (efferent) pathway?
What are the 2 divisions of the autonomic pathway?
What is the function of neutrons?
Carry action potentials
What is the cytoplasm in the neuronal cell body called?
What is the function of myelin sheath?
Insulates axon, increasing speed of conduction
What cells form the myelin sheath?
Schwann cells (PNS)
What happens to myelin in MS?
Demyelination of nerves
Which tract do sensory fibres ascend in the spinal cord?
Which tract carries pain fibres up to the brain?
What are the different tracts which carry motor fibres down the spinal cord?
Lateral & anterior corticospinal tract
Where are pseudounipolar neurons found?
Sensory afferent neurons
Where are bipolar neutrons found?
Retinal nerve fibres
What is the most common type of neuron?
Which cells line the central canal & produce CSF?
What are the types of glial cells found within the CNS?
What are the factors which compose the BBB?
Tight junctions at endothelium
Where is the BBB absent?
In order for a drug to cross the BBB, what does it have to be?
(OR USE VECTORAL TRANSPORT)
How many horns do the lateral ventricles have?
3 - anterior, posterior & inferior horns
Which meningeal layer is vascularised?
Where is CNS found? (meninges)
What is the function of CSF?
Protects & nourishes the brain
What is the name of the collection of neuronal cell bodies deep within the cerebral hemispheres?
What is the name of the fissure between the 2 cerebral hemispheres?
Median longitudinal fissure
What is the function of the corpus callosum?
Connects the 2 cerebral hemispheres
What lies in front/ behind the central sulcus?
Primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus)
Primary somatosensory cortex (postcentral gyrus)
What does the lateral sulcus separate?
Frontal lobe & Temporal lobe
What sulcus divides the parietal & occipital lobes?
What is the name of the sulcus which runs above the corpus callosum?
In which lobe is the hippocampus found?
What are the 52 areas of the brain called?
Which hemisphere, dominant or non-dominant usually controls movement?
Which cerebral hemisphere tends to be the dominant side?
What area is the precentral gyrus?
What does Broca's area control? What area?
What is the motor/ sensory map depicted at the pre/pos central gyrus?
What are the areas of the post-central gyrus?
3, 1, 2
Which cerebral lobe contributes to language function?
Parietal lobe (dominant hemisphere)
When there is a parietal lobe lesion, what is observed?
(Agraphia, acalculia, agnosia)
What cortex is found at the temporal lobe? Area?
Primary auditory cortex
What auditory association area is found at the dominant temporal lobe? Function?
(Important for understanding spoken word)
Which lobe receives fibres from the olfactory tract?
Where is the Primary visual cortex found?
Occipital lobe (calcarine sulcus)
Which surface of the cerebrum is the limbic system found?
What is aphasia?
Problem with speech due to damage to brain
If there is damage to Brocas area, what type of aphasia will be observed?
(unable to speak, paralysis)
If there is damage to Wernickes area, what type of aphasia will be observed?
(Will talk away saying nonsense words)
What is the internal capsule composed of?
Projections fibres (white matter tracts)
Where does the internal capsule derive its blood supply?
What composes the basal ganglia?
Caudate nucleus, putamen & globus pallidus
What composes the lentiform nucleus?
Putamen & globus pallidus
What part of the basal ganglia is in contact with the lateral ventricle?
What lies in contact with the 3rd ventricle?
What is the main function of the basal ganglia?
Initiation & termination of movement