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Flashcards in Neuroanatomy Deck (119)
1

What composes white matter?

Myelinated axons

2

What composes grey matter?

Neuronal cell bodies

3

Where is white matter found?

Spinal cord (outside)
Brain (inside)

4

What are the names of the different tracts present?

Commissural
Projection
Association

5

Within the CNS, what are a collection of cell bodies called?

Nucleus

6

Within the PNS, what are a collection of cell bodies called?

Ganglion

7

Where are the lateral ventricles found?

Cerebral hemispheres

8

What lies next to the 3rd ventricle?

Thalamus

9

Where does the cerebral aqueduct lie?

Midbrain

10

Where does the 4th ventricle lie?

Between pons, medulla & cerebellum

11

Between which layers is the CSF found?

Pia
Arachnoid

12

What produces CSF?

choroid plexus

13

Where is CSF absorbed?

Arachnoid villi into sagittal sinus

14

Where do the internal carotid arteries enter the skull?

Carotid canal

15

What artery do the vertebral arteries branch off?

Subclavian

16

Through which foramen do the vertebral arteries go through?

Foramen magnum

17

What are the main contributing factors to the Circle of Willis?

ICA
Basilar artery

18

What is the function of the Circle of Willis?

Protective mechanism which allows circulation to be maintained to the brain

19

What area of the brain does the Circle of Willis supply?

Cerebral hemispheres

20

The ICA give branches to which arteries?

ACA
MCA
Post communicating

21

Which arteries of the C o W supply the largest area of the cerebrum?

ACA
MCA

22

What do the 2 vertebral arteries combine to form?

Basilar artery

23

What does the vertebra-basilar system supply?

Brainstem
Cerebellum

24

What does the basilar artery divide into?

PCA

25

Which artery supplies the medial aspect of the cerebrum?

ACA

26

Which artery supplies the occipital lobe? If it is occluded what can it lead to?

PCA
Visuocortical blindness

27

Between which 2 layers do the venous sinus lie?

Dural folds

28

What vein do the venous sinus drain into?

IJV

29

What does the neural tube form from?

Ectoderm

30

What is another name for the forebrain?

Prosencephalon

31

What is another name for the midbrain?

Mesencaphalon

32

What is another name for the hindbrain?

Rhombencephalon

33

What does the Prosencaphlon form?

Telencephalon
Diencaphalon

34

What does the Mesencephalon form?

Midbrain

35

What does the Rhombencephalon form?

Metencephlon
Myencephalon

36

What forms the brainstem?

Midbrain
Pons
Medulla oblongata

37

Which cranial nerves arise from the brainstem?

III-XII

38

What does the medulla continue as?

Spinal cord

39

What is the name of the medullary area where decussation of fibres occurs?

Pyramids

40

What lies lateral to the pyramids at the medulla

Olives

41

What connects the medulla & cerebellum?

Inferior cerebellar peduncles

42

What cranial nerves arise from the medulla?

IX, X, XI, XII

43

What connects the pons to the cerebellum?

Middle cerebellar peduncles

44

Which cranial nerves originate from its surface?

V, VI, VII & VIII

45

What is 2 structures are present at the midbrain?

Superior & Inferior colliculi

46

What is the function of the superior colliculi?

Visual reflex

47

What is the function of the inferior colliculi?

Auditory reflex

48

What peducles are present at the midbrain?

Cerebral peduncle
Superior cerebellar peduncle

49

Which cranial nerves originate from the midbrain?

III, IV

50

Which cranial nerve is the only nerve to originate posteriorly?

Trochlear nerve (IV)

51

What are the name of 2 nuclei found in the midbrain?

Substantia niagra
Red nucleus

52

What disease is the substantia niarga associated with?

Parkinsons disease

53

What are the folds & ridges called at the cerebellum?

Sulci & folia

54

Each cerebellar hemisphere is composed of which lobes?

Anterior
Posterior
Flocculonodular

55

What connects the 2 cerebellar hemispheres?

Vermis

56

What matter are the cerebellar peduncles composed of?

White matter

57

Where is the grey/white matter found on the cerebellum?

Grey matter (surface)
White matter (deep)

58

What is the risk associated with increased intracranial pressure & cerebellar tonsils?

Herniation of cerebellar tonsils

59

What is the function of the cerebellum?

Coordination & balance

60

If there is an abnormality at the cerebellum, what is a sign that could be observed?

Ataxia

61

What are the structures of the diencephalon?

Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Pineal gland
Pituitary gland

62

What is the function of the thalamus?

Sensory relay centre

63

What is the role of the hypothalamus?

Homeostatic control of temperature, thirst, appetite, sleep/wake cycle & endocrine control.

64

What is the function of the brainstem?

Control vital signs (respiratory centre)

65

What are the 2 divisions of the motor (efferent) pathway?

Somatic
Autonomic

66

What are the 2 divisions of the autonomic pathway?

Sympathetic
Parasympathetic

67

What is the function of neutrons?

Carry action potentials

68

What is the cytoplasm in the neuronal cell body called?

Perikaryon

69

What is the function of myelin sheath?

Insulates axon, increasing speed of conduction

70

What cells form the myelin sheath?

Schwann cells (PNS)
Oligodendrocytes (CNS)

71

What happens to myelin in MS?

Demyelination of nerves

72

Which tract do sensory fibres ascend in the spinal cord?

Dorsal column

73

Which tract carries pain fibres up to the brain?

Spinothalamic tract

74

What are the different tracts which carry motor fibres down the spinal cord?

Lateral & anterior corticospinal tract
Rubrospinal tract

75

Where are pseudounipolar neurons found?

Sensory afferent neurons

76

Where are bipolar neutrons found?

Retinal nerve fibres
Olfactory mucosa

77

What is the most common type of neuron?

Multipolar

78

Which cells line the central canal & produce CSF?

Ependymal cells

79

What are the types of glial cells found within the CNS?

Microglia cells
Oligodendrocytes
Astrocytes

80

What are the factors which compose the BBB?

Tight junctions at endothelium
Basal lamina
Astrocyte projections

81

Where is the BBB absent?

Hypothalamus
Posterior pituitary

82

In order for a drug to cross the BBB, what does it have to be?

Lipid soluble
(OR USE VECTORAL TRANSPORT)

83

How many horns do the lateral ventricles have?

3 - anterior, posterior & inferior horns

84

Which meningeal layer is vascularised?

Pia mater

85

Where is CNS found? (meninges)

Subarachnoid space

86

What is the function of CSF?

Protects & nourishes the brain

87

What is the name of the collection of neuronal cell bodies deep within the cerebral hemispheres?

Basal ganglia

88

What is the name of the fissure between the 2 cerebral hemispheres?

Median longitudinal fissure

89

What is the function of the corpus callosum?

Connects the 2 cerebral hemispheres

90

What lies in front/ behind the central sulcus?

Primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus)
Primary somatosensory cortex (postcentral gyrus)

91

What does the lateral sulcus separate?

Frontal lobe & Temporal lobe

92

What sulcus divides the parietal & occipital lobes?

Parieto-occipital sulcus

93

What is the name of the sulcus which runs above the corpus callosum?

Cingulate sulcus

94

In which lobe is the hippocampus found?

Temporal lobe

95

What are the 52 areas of the brain called?

Brodmann areas

96

Which hemisphere, dominant or non-dominant usually controls movement?

Dominant

97

Which cerebral hemisphere tends to be the dominant side?

Left hemisphere

98

What area is the precentral gyrus?

Area 4

99

What does Broca's area control? What area?

Motor speech
Area 44,45

100

What is the motor/ sensory map depicted at the pre/pos central gyrus?

Homunculus

101

What are the areas of the post-central gyrus?

3, 1, 2

102

Which cerebral lobe contributes to language function?

Parietal lobe (dominant hemisphere)

103

When there is a parietal lobe lesion, what is observed?

Hemisensory neglect

(Agraphia, acalculia, agnosia)

104

What cortex is found at the temporal lobe? Area?

Primary auditory cortex
41,42

105

What auditory association area is found at the dominant temporal lobe? Function?

Wernickes area
(Important for understanding spoken word)

106

Which lobe receives fibres from the olfactory tract?

Temporal lobe

107

Where is the Primary visual cortex found?

Occipital lobe (calcarine sulcus)

108

Which surface of the cerebrum is the limbic system found?

Medial surface

109

What is aphasia?

Problem with speech due to damage to brain

110

If there is damage to Brocas area, what type of aphasia will be observed?

Expressive aphasia

(unable to speak, paralysis)

111

If there is damage to Wernickes area, what type of aphasia will be observed?

Receptive aphasia

(Will talk away saying nonsense words)

112

What is the internal capsule composed of?

Projections fibres (white matter tracts)

113

Where does the internal capsule derive its blood supply?

MCA

114

What composes the basal ganglia?

Caudate nucleus, putamen & globus pallidus

115

What composes the lentiform nucleus?

Putamen & globus pallidus

116

What part of the basal ganglia is in contact with the lateral ventricle?

Caudate nucleus

117

What lies in contact with the 3rd ventricle?

Thalamus

118

What is the main function of the basal ganglia?

Initiation & termination of movement

119

What is the basal ganglia also referred to as?

Extrapyramidal system