Breast and Thoracic Wall Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Radiology Test 2 > Breast and Thoracic Wall > Flashcards

Flashcards in Breast and Thoracic Wall Deck (67)
1

Mammary gland origin

Epidermis of the skin (modified sweat gland)

2

Location of mammary glands

Superficial fascia
Superficial to pec major

3

Glandular Tissue composition and location

15-20 lobes radially arranged around nipple
Made of several lobules with ducts that converge and open on the surface of the nipple

4

Lactiferus ducts

Have dilation towards nipple that serves as a reservoir for milk

5

Reservoir for milk names

Ampulla or sinus

6

What part of mammary extends toward axilla?

Axillary tail of spence

7

Suspensory ligaments composition, locaiton, and functiojn

Fibrous bands running from deeper (membranous) layer of superficial fascia to the dermis
Surrounds and supports glandular tissues
Can be seen on a mammogram

8

Retromammary space function and location

Between superficial and deep fascia overlying pec major and serratus anterior...allows for movement of the breast on thoracic wall

9

Blood supply of mammary glands and origins/additional branches

Internal thoracic artery (perforating branches and anterior intercostal branches)
Lateral thoracic and thoracoacromial arteries (from axillary)
Posterior intercostal arteries (from thoracic aorta)

10

Which two arteries of mammary will anastomose

Posterior intercostal and anterior intercostal

11

Innervation of mammary glands and types of fibers found within

Intercostal nerves 4-6 (ventral primary rami)
Somatomotor, somatosensory, postganglionic sympathetic

12

Which two nerves pass lateral to mammary gland that cna be injured during masectomy?

Long thoracic and thoracodorsal

13

Most drainage of breast first passes to

Subareolar lymphatic plexus

14

Most drainage goes from subareolar lymphatic plexus to the

Axillary lymph nodes ------
Pectoral (ant)
Subscap (post)
Lateral
Central
Apical (to subclav trunk)

15

Parasternal nodes and where they drain (also artery associated with)

Can receive drainage from subareolar lymphatic plexus
Will then go to deep lymphatics associated with internal thoracic artery

16

Other route than drainage can go from subareolar lymph plex besdies parasternal and axillary nodes

Abdominal nodes and to contralateral breas t

17

Carcinomas of breast usually derived from

Epithelial cells of the lactiferous ducts

18

Primary and secondary spread of breast cancer

Lymphatic
Venous

19

What causes orange peel appearnace?

Edema of the skin from interference with lymph drainage

20

What does fibrosis cause and mechanism

Dimpling of the skin caused by shortening of the suspensory ligament

21

Invasion of retromammary space can

Fix the breast to the thoracic wall

22

General functions of the thoracic wall

Protection of organs
Respiration
Muscle attachment

23

Superior thoracic aperture and what is found on lateral thirds

Superior opening of the thoracic
Suprapleural membranes

24

Inferior thoracic aperture and what it is covered by

Inferior boundary of the thorax
Diaphragm

25

What passes throoug hthe inferior thoracic aperture

Aorta, esophagus, azygos v., inferior vena cava, and nerves

26

Endothoracic fascia and what does it form?

Deep fascia
Thickens over lungs to form suprapleural membrane

27

What lies deep to endothoracic fascia in areas adjacent to the lungs?

Parietal pleura

28

External intercostal - direction and attachments

Most superficial layer
Inferior and medially (on the front)
Vertebral bodies to the costochondral junction
DOES NOT EXTEND TO STERNUM LIKE THE EXTERNAL INTERCOSTAL MEMBRANE

29

Internal intercostal muscles - direction and attachments

Second layer
From sternum to angle of the ribs
DOES NOT EXTEND TO VERTEBRAL BODIES LIKE THE MEMBRANE DOES

30

Innermost intercostals - attachments

Track with the internal intercostals
Subcostal (extend more than one intercostal space near vertebral bodies )

31

Transversus thoracis

Part of innermost intercostals on posterior surface of lower sternum

32

Costal groove contents from superior to inferior and what layers found between

Intercostal vein, artery, and nerve
Between internal and innermost muscle layers

33

Best location for thoracocentesis?

Between ribs so that you won't hit neurovascular bundle

34

What are suprapleural membranes?

Thicken endothoracic fascia over the apices of the lungs

35

Trachea location and what is it continuous with superiorly?

Larynx superiorly
Anterior to the esophagus

36

Esophagus continuous with what superiorly?

Pharynx

37

What artery is found on right but not left and what does it give origin to?

Brachiocephalic
Origin to the right common carotid and right subclavian

38

Brachiocephalic artery

Branch of the aorta
Gives origin to right common carotid and right subclavian

39

Left common carotid artery origin and supply

Supplies head and neck
Branch of aorta

40

Left subclavian origin and supply

Left upper extermity
Branch of the aorta

41

Subclavian artery location and branches

Posterior to the anterior scalenes
Vertebral, internal thoracic and thyrocervical arteries

42

Subclavian veins location and function

Drain upper extremities
Anterior to the anterior scalenes

43

Internal jugular veins function and what it forms

Drains the brain
Joins with subclavian veins to form brachiocephalic veins

44

Thoracic duct and where it empties

Terminal portion of lymphatic system
Empties into venous at left internal jugular and left subclavian veins

45

Vagus nerves

Cranial nerve 10
Parasympathetic for neck, thorax, and abdomen

46

Phrenic nerves and location

C3, C4, and C5
Innervate the diaphragm
On the anterior scalene muscles

47

Anterior scalene muscles and location relative to Brachial plexus

Anterior
Muscles of the neck

48

Thoracic diaphragm

Dome shaped musculofibrous septum that separates the thoracic cavity from abdominla cavity

49

Primary muscle of respiration

Thoracic diaphragm

50

Right crus attahcment

First three lumbar vertebrae

51

Left crus attachment

First 2 lumbar vertebrae

52

Central tendon of thoracic diaphragm

Strong aponeurosis for attachment of diaphragm muscles

53

Foramen of the vena cava located

In the central tendon of the thoracic diaphragm

54

Contraction of diaphragm does what to central tendon?

Lowers it

55

Diaphragm innervation

Phrenic nerves - motor and sensory
Intercostal nerves - some sensory arround the edges

56

Blood supply of the diaphragm

Superior and inferior phrenic arteries (from aorta)
Intercostal arteries
Internal thoracic arteries

57

Vertebrae level of central tendon attachment

L3

58

Vertebrae level of vena cava foramen and what passes through

T8
Inferior vena cava

59

Level of esophageal hiatus and what passes through

T10
Esophagus
Vagus nerves

60

Level of aortic hiatus and what passes through

T12
Aorta
Azygos vein
Thoracic duct

61

Respiratory mechanics

Superior - inferior: Action of diaphragm
Anterior - posterior: Pump-handle
Lateral - Lateral: Bucket handle

62

Quiet inspiration muscles

Primarily diaphragm

63

Quiet expiration

Passive recoil

64

Forced inspiration

Diaphragm
External intercostals
Scalens
Sternocleidomastoid

65

Forced expiration

Abdominal wall muscles
INternal intercostals
Transversus thoracis

66

Cartilaginous joints of the thoracic wall

Intervertebral
Costochondral
1st sternocostal joint (1st rib and manubrium)
Manubriosternal
Xiphisternal

67

Synovial joints of thoracic wall

Costovertebral (head of rib with vertebra)
2-7 sternocostal joints
Interchondral