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Anatomy and Radiology Test 2 > Pelvis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pelvis Deck (89):
1

How is bony pelvis divided and what are regions

Superior peliv aperture (pelvic inlet)
False (greater) pelivs above
True (lesser) pelvis between inlet and outlet

2

Bony boundary of pelvic inlet

Pevlic brim

3

Position for pelvis exam

Lithotomy position

4

Pelvic outlet is also called

Inferior pelvic aperture

5

Midpelvic (tranverse) diameter

Line between ischial spaces
Smallest line that baby must pass through

6

Obstetric (true) conjugate

Line from the sacral promentory to the pubic symphysis
Shorter than diagonal

7

Diagonal conjugate and how to measure

Palpate sacral promontory...line extends to the inferior aspect of pubic symphysis...line will be longer than true conjugate

8

Sacrotuberous ligament attachments

Extends from sacrum to medial margin of ischial tuberosity

9

Sacrospinous attachments

From medial margin of lower sacrum to ischial spine

10

Obturator membrane closes off
Allows passage of

Most of obturator foramen
Obturator artery, vein, and nerve

11

Innfer surface of pelvis, hip bone, and sacrum, largerly covered by

Piriformis
Obturator internus

12

Pelvic diagphragm

Sling-like muscular structure covering pelvic floor

13

Posterior part of pelvic diaphragm and relative location to sacrospinous

Coccygeus
Deep

14

Anterior part of pelvic floor

Levator ani muscles

15

What do levator ani muscles arise from

Tendinous arch

16

What is tendinous arch

Thickening of fascia covering obturator internus muscle
Gives rise to levator ani muscles

17

Puborectalis muscle and what it is important for

Fibers of levator ani that loop around rectum
Maintaining fecal continenence

18

Levator ani muscle innervation

Sacral plexus

19

Perineum

Region below pelvic diaphragm

20

Deep pouch of the perineum composition and function

Composed of muscle, connective tissue, and neurovascular structures
Supports urogenital organs

21

Where does deep pouch not extend

Posteriorly past the ischial tuberosities to support the rectum

22

Perineal body

Midline know of fibrous connective tissue connecting pelvic floor and deep pouch of perineum

23

Damage to peliv floor, perineal body, or deep pouch can lead to

Incontinence, prolapse of the bladder or prolapse of the uterus through the vagina

24

3 systems of pelvic anterior to posterior

Urinary, reproductive, digestive

25

Rectum is continuation of what and begins where?

Sigmoid colon
Pelvic brim

26

Lumen of rectum exhibits what?

3 permanent transverse folds

27

Smooth muscle over rectum formed from

Taeniae coli of the colon

28

When is rectum renamed anal canal?

Region of perineum

29

Arterialy supply of rectum and origins

Superior rectal (from inferior mesenteric)
Middle rectal (from internal iliac)
Inferior rectal (from internal pudendal from internal iliac)

30

Venous return of rectum and where they drain to

Superior rectal vein (portal venous system)
Middle rectal vein (to internal iliac vein to IVC)
Inferior rectal vein (to internal pudendal vein to internal iliac vein to IVC)

31

Portocaval anastomosis

Connects superior, middle, and inferior regions of rectal venous plexus...means if superior is blocked, will drain to middle and inferior)

32

Hemorrhoids formed from

Longitudinal venous channels that are dilated...result of portocaval anastomosis

33

Rectal venous plexus also anastomsis with what (cancer)

Urinary bladder, prostate, uterovaginal plexus)

34

Parasympathetic innervation of rectum

S2-4 and joins pelvic splanchnics (ganglion in wall of target organ)

35

Sympathetic innervation of recum

Comes from lower regions of the IML to collateral ganglion in lubrosacral plexus

36

Lumbrosacral plexus also innervates

Anal sphincter

37

Somatomotor and somatosensory innervation of the rectum

Pudendal - both

38

What does pudendal nerve also innervate?

External anal sphincter

39

Types of nerve fibers of rectum

Para
Symp
Somatomotor and sensory

40

As rectum enters the pelvis____

Fixed to the body wall

41

What seals the rectum

Kinking mechanism

42

Why is inferior anal canal immobile?

External anal sphincter

43

Anorectal angle

Region of rectum passing through pelvic diaphragm
Pretty immobile

44

Puborectalis

Loops around the rectum at the anorectal angle

45

Contrction of puborectalis

Will draw rectum anteriorly, cuasing the tube to fold...analogous to kinking a garden hos e

46

What makes fold even more secure

Intraabdominal pressure

47

Where do ureters pass pelvic brim?

Bifurcation of common iliac arteries

48

In the female/Male, ureter is crossed superiorly by

Uterine artery
Ductus deferens

49

Detrusor muscle

Main muscle of the bladder

50

Interior walls of bladder exhibit

Mucosal folds EXCEPT in the trigone

51

When empty, bladder lies _____, when ballooned it lies -____

True pelvis...ab cavity

52

Apex of bladder

Continuous with the medial umbilical ligament (urachus) of the anterior ab wall
Most anterior corner

53

Superior surface of bladder

Covered by peritoneum and expands when filled

54

Base of the bladder

Most inferior and least distensible part

55

Ureters enter the bladder

At upper corner of the base

56

Uterovesical junctions

Prevent backflow of urine during bladder contraction

57

Trigone location

Smooth portion of bladder wall
Tapers toward neck

58

Internal urethral sphincter adjacent to what in male and female

Prostate gland
Deep pouch of perineum

59

Bladder blood supply

Internal iliac artery --- superior and inferior vesicles aa

60

Detrusor muscle innervation

Parasympathetic
S2-S4

61

Internal urethral sphincter innervated by

Sympathetic fibers

62

In order to fill bladder, detrusor muscle and sympathetic fibers

Detrusor relaxes and sympathetic fibers elicit contractio of internal sphincter

63

TO empy bladder

Visceral affarent fibers carry to S2-S4 that elicit a parasym response...contracts detrusor AND ALSO inhibits internal urethral sphincter

64

Atonic or flaccid bladder

Inability to empty completely
May be because of neurological lesions of parasympathetic (sacral cord)

65

Spastic bladder (over active bladder)

Inability to fill the bladder
May be due to neurologic lesions to sympathetic portion (above sacral level)

66

Urethra connects (in males)

Urinary bladder and testis to genitalia

67

Prostatic urethra

Passes through prostate where ejaculatory ducts deposit contents

68

Membranous urethra

Passes through deep pouch of perineum
Surrounded by external urethral sphincter
Most easily ruptured during catheter placement

69

Spongy urethra

Longest portion
Surrounded by corpus spongiosum of penis

70

Upper portion of female urethra lies

Between bladder and UG diaphragm

71

BPH

Bening prostatic hypertrophy
Enlarged prostate prevents flow of urine through prostatic urethra

72

Uterus orientation

Anteverted - anterior lies superior
Anteflexed - slightly bent forward

73

How are ovaries attached to posterior body wall?

Suspensory ligaments - also provides route for artery and vein

74

Proper ovarian ligament

Attaches uterus to lower pole of ovary

75

Infundibulum

Has hair like appendages called fimbriae that engulf egg

76

Ampulla

Mid region and site of fertilization

77

Isthmus

Narrowest part of tube that joins uterus

78

Mesosalpinx of broad ligament

Covers and supports uterine tubes

79

Pouches of peritoneum found in men and women

Rectouterine and vesicouterine pouch (female)
Rectovesical pouch (male)

80

Broad ligament

What peritoneum renamed when it drapes over sides of female reproductive structures
Double layered

81

Mesometrium

Directly apply to uterus

82

Mesosalpinx

Covers uterine tube and attaches tube to mesometrium

83

Mesovarium

Supports ovary

84

Larger majority of ovary in infundibulum covered by ______

germinal epithelium

85

Pelvis fascia type

Investing
Endopelvic fascia (covers walls and organs)
Subserous fascia (loose adipose tissue packing material)

86

Transverse cervical ligament (or cardinal ligaments)

Support the uterus or vagina
***Uterine artery/vein will pass through this

87

Pubocervical ligament

Support bladder and cervix

88

Uterosacral ligaments

Stabilize uterus and rectum

89

What supports gorwing baby in abdominal cavity

Borad ligament, endopelvic fascia, and pelvic diaphgram