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Flashcards in Gastrointestinal Development Deck (65):
1

Most common congenital GI anomaly

Intestinal obstruction

2

When does part of inestines herniate out and back in ?

Week 6-10

3

Foregut

Esophagus
Stomach
Proximal duodenum
Pancreas
Liver
Biliary system

4

Midgut

Distal duodenum
Most small intestine
Cecum
Appendix
Ascending colon
Right 1/2 of tvs colon

5

Hindgut

Distal 1/2 tvs colon
Descending colon
Sigmoid colon
Rectum
Superor part of anal cnaal

6

Gut tube formed by

Incorporation of dorsal yolk sac into embryo

7

Gut tube extends from

oropharyngeal to cloacal membrane

8

Vitelline duct

Connects yolk sac to midgut

9

Celiac artery supplies

Foregut except pharynx, resp tract, and intra-thoracic esophagus

10

Mid gut supply

Suprior mesenteric artery

11

Hindgut supply

Inferior mesenteric

12

Parasympathetic innervation of gut

Vagus nerve innervates foregut and midgut
Pelvic splanchnis innervates hindgut (S2-S4)

13

Foregut derivatives

Pharynx and deriv
Lower resp
Esophagus and stomach
Duodenum (superior half)
Liver, biliary, and pancreas

14

Stomach formation

Dorsal stomach wall becomes greater curvature
Ventral stomach wall becomes lesser curvature
From caudal foregut

15

Stomach rotates how?

Clockwise
Left becomes ventral and right becomes dorsal

16

Ventral wall/dorsal wall of stomach innervation

Left vagus - ventral
Right vagus - dorsal

17

How is stomach suspended from dorsal and ventral ab walls

Mesogastrium (dorsal and ventral mesenteries)

18

Dorsal mesogastrium becomes

Greater omentum

19

Rotation of dorsal mesogastrium forms

OMental bursa (lesser sac)

20

Ventral mesogastrium becomes

Lesser omentum

21

Pyloric stenosis

Thickening of smooth muscle in pyloric region of the stomach
Prevents food from emptying properly into duodenum

22

Duodenum formed from

Caudal foregut and cranial midgut

23

Where does common bile duct attach?

Junction of foregut and midgut

24

Rotation of stomach rotates duodenal loop

To the right and pushes pancreas and udodenum into retroperitoneal postion

25

Duodenal stenosis

When lumen narrowed as a result of failed recanalization
Vomiting

26

Duodenal atresia

When lumen is occuded
Associated with other severe conditions
Double bubble

27

Pancreas formed from

Foregut endoderm
Dorsal and ventral pancreatic buds between layers of mesenter y

28

Duodenal rotation moves what parts of pancreas

Ventral pancreatic bud posterior to the dorsal bud and fuses

29

Ventral pancreatic bud becomes what part of pancreas?

Head, uncinate, and most of main duct

30

Dorsal bud forms

Rest of pancreas

31

Main pancreatic duct from

Dorsla and ventral duct anastamose

32

Biliary development

Caudal foregut endoderm grows out to form hepatic diverticulum into surroudning mesoderm

33

Hepatic diverticulum divides into

Cranial and caudal portion

34

Cranial portion of hepatic diverticulum forms

Liver
Hepatic cords from endoderm and fibrous and hemopoeitic blood forming cells from septum transversum

35

Caudal portion of hepatic diverticulum forms

Gallbladder and cystic duct
Endodermal lined

36

Bile duct from

From common stalk connecting the hepatic and cystic ducts

37

Liver encased by

Ventral mesogastrium

38

Lesser omentum and falciform ligament connect liver to

Stomach and ab wall

39

As midgut elongates, forms a midgut loop around

Superior mesenteric artery

40

Physiological umbilical herniation

Growing midgut loop moves into extraembryonic space

41

Cranial loop of midgut forms

Jejunum and upper ileum
Coils a lot

42

Caudal limb of midgut forms

Lower ilem
Ascending colon
1/2 of transverse (proximal)
Grows very little

43

Cecal diverticulum develops into

Cecum and appendix

44

Which limb returns first and what happens when it does?

Yolk stalk eliminated
Cranial limb

45

Which part returns last?

Cecum

46

Return of colon does what to duodenum and pancreas

Presses against posterior abdominal wall

47

Jejunum and ileum retain

Mesenteries

48

Ascending and Descending colon become secondarily retroperitoneal how?

Dorsal mesentery fuses with peritoneum

49

Greater omentum fuses with

istself and mesentery of transverse colon

50

Umbilical hernias

When midgut hernia reduces normally but herniates again through imperfectly closed umbilicus (covered by subq and skin)

51

Gastroshisis

Defect in ventral ab wall
Viscera extrude without umbilical cord involvement
From incomplete embryonic folding

52

Ileal (Meckel's) diverticulum

Persistence of proximal yolk stalk
May become inflamed and cause appendicitis

53

Terminal end of hindgut lined with

Cloaca - endoderm lined puch

54

Cloaca contacts

Ectoderm of proctoderum and cloacal membrane

55

Proctodeum

Invagination of surface of ectoderm caused by proliferation of mesoderm around cloacal membrane

56

Cloaca partitioned by

Urorectal septum into rectum and seuprior anal canal
As well as primitive urogenital sinus

57

Urorectal septum composed of

Lateral and longitudinal folds

58

Mesoderm proliferation produces elevations of surface ectoderm at the

Anal membrane

59

Anal membrane located at

Proctodeum

60

Lower anal canal develops from

Proctodeum

61

Lower anal canal is NOT

a part of hidgut

62

Pectinate line marks

Junction of upper and lower canals

63

Lower anal canal vs/ upper pain and structure

Lower - ecto derm and localized pain
Upper - endo and visceral pain

64

Congenital megacolon (Hirschsprung's disease)

Neurological dysfunction that affects colon
Abnormality of autonomic ganglia
Failure of peristalsis
Neural crest cell problem

65

Anorectal agenesis

Rectum ends too far superior either blindly or iwht a fistula to bladder, urethra, vagina, or vestibule