Pleura, Lungs, and Lung Development Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Radiology Test 2 > Pleura, Lungs, and Lung Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pleura, Lungs, and Lung Development Deck (69)
1

Layers of pleura and what they touch

Visceral - on the lungs
Parietal - on the surface

2

What is the space between the two layers of pleura and what does it contain?

Pleural cavity
Serous fluid

3

How are two layers of pleura held together?

Surface tension

4

Regions of parietal pleura

Cervical
Costal
Diaphragmatic
Mediastinal
I

5

What are regions of parietal pleura in contact with?

Endothoracic fascia

6

Innervation of parietal pleura and what is it sensitive to?

Phrenic and intercostal
Localized pain

7

Is visceral pleura sensitive to localized pain and what is innervation?

No
Visceral affarent nerves

8

Suprapleural membrane covers which part of parietal pleura?

Cervical

9

Costodiaphragmatic recess

Lowest point of pleural cavity
Recevies drainage of pleural cavity if standing up

10

Costomediastinal recess function

Allows lungs to expand into area during inhalation

11

Hemothorax and where it will drain

Blood in pleural cavity
Costodiaphragmatic recess

12

Pneumothorax and what is can cause

Air in the lung
Collapsed lung

13

Tension pneumothorax causes

Shifting of the mediastinum which can compress a lung

14

Lobes of the right lung and fissures separating

Superior
Middle
Inferior
Horizontal separates sup and mid
Oblique separates mid and inf

15

Lobes of the left lung and fissure

Superior and inferior
Oblique separates

16

2 structures found in superor lobe of left lung

Cardiac notch and lingula

17

Bronchopulmonary segments

Anatomically separate respiratory units surround by connective tissue CONTINUOS with visceral pleura

18

What does each BP segment receive?

A segmental (tertiary) bronchus with accompnaying branch of a pulmonary artery (intrasegmental)

19

Branches of pulmonary veins located

In connective tissue between BP segments (intersegmental)

20

Pulmonary veins and pulmonary arteries carry

Arteries - deoxygenated blood
Veins - oxygenated

21

Sternal angle is at what levle and what is significance

T4...this is where trachea splits to left and right primary bronchus

22

Right vs. left primary bronchus

Right wider and more vertical than left...means objects more likely to go here

23

How many secondary bronchi from each primary branch?

3 on right
2 on left

24

Tertiary bronchi go to

individual BP segments

25

BP segments of right lung superior lobe

Apical
Posterior
Anterior

26

BP segments of right middle lobe

Lateral
Medial

27

BP segments of right inferior lobe

Superior
Medial basal
Anterior B
Lateral B
Posterior B

28

BP segments of left superior lobe

Apicoposterior (1-2)
Anterior
Lingular division has 2 (superior lingular and inferior lingular)

29

BP segments of left inferior lobe

Superior
Medial B
Nateior B
Lateral B
Posterior B

30

Innervation of the lungs

Pulmonary plexuses
Postganglionic symp
Preganglionic parasymp
Visceral afferent

31

Postganglionic symp fibers of lungs from

Cell bodies in upper and cervical sympathetic chain ganglia (paravertebral)

32

Preganglionic parasymp of lungs

Vagus nerve

33

Sympathetic lung stimulation

Bronchodilation and inhibition of bronchial secretions

34

Parasympathetic lung stimulation

Bronchoconstriction and increased bronchial secretions

35

Affarent innervation of lungs and visceral pleura
and how these fibers travel

Affarent nociceptive fibers
Afferent reflex fibers
Travel with symp and vagal fibers back to spinal cord and brain stem

36

Afferent innervation of the parietal pleura

Intercostal and phrenic nerves

37

Lung pulmonary circulation

Pulmonary arteries and veins

38

Systemic circulation of lungs

Bronchial arteries
Bronchial veins
Supplies root of lungs and supporting tissue

39

Bronchial arteries from

Thoracic aorta or upper posterior intercostal arteries

40

Bronchial veins drain

Into azygos system or superior intercostal veins

41

Horizontal Surface location

Along 4th rib and costal cartilage on right side

42

Oblique fissure Surface location

Starts at T2/T3 spinous process and runs down to follow curvature of 6th rib

43

Cardiac nothc surface location

Along 4-6 costal cartilages left of sternum

44

Lower respiratory system develops as a ________ beginning ______

4th week
Outpocketing from the cranial foregut

45

Laryngotracheal diverticulum and what germ layer

Forms from caudal end of the floor of primitive pharynz
Endoderm lined
Cartilage, muscle, and connective tissue from splanchnic mesoderm

46

Tracheoesophageal folds - what are they and what is function?...also, what germ layer?

Form along longitudinal margins and fuse to produce tracheoesophageal septum
Isolates developing respiratory system from digestive system
Splanchnic mesoderm

47

Tracheoesophageal septum divides what?

The cranial foregut into a ventral laryngotracheal tube and a dorsal esophagus portion

48

Laryngeal inlet

How laryngotracheal tube retains connection with the pharynx

49

Tracheoesophageal fistulas

Result of incomplete closure of tracheoesophageal folds
Connection of larynx and foregut

50

Results of a tracheoesophageal fistual

Esophageal atresia and polyhydramnios (too much amniotic fluid)

51

Clinical signs of tracheoesophageal fistulas

Excess mucous
Cyanosis
Abdominal distension after crying
Gastric reflux in the lungs

52

Gastric reflux in the lungs leads to

Pneumonitis

53

VACTERL association

Vertebral abnormal
Anal atresia
Cardiovascular abnormal
Tracheoesophageal fistula
Esophageal atresia
Renal anomalies
Limb Defects

54

What does lung bud at end of laryngotracheal diverticulum divide into

Bronchial Buds

55

How to bronchial buds gorw?

Laterally into the primitive pleural cavities

56

Visceral and parietal pleura derived from

V - splanchnic
P - somatic

57

Each bronchial bud fomrs a

Primary bronchus

58

Primary bronchi form

3 or 2 secondary bronchi

59

Tertiary bronchi surrounded by

Expanding mass of mesoderm

60

Each segmental bronchus and surrounding mesoderm are called a

Bronchopulmonary segment

61

16 weeks

Conducting portion generated

62

FInal level

Prospective terminal bronchioles

63

What do fetal breathing movements accomplish?

Cause aspiration of amniotic fluid

64

When born, what happens to lungs and amniotic fluid

Eliminated through nose and mouth and by resorbption of blood and lymph
Lungs are conditioned

65

Earliest period where fetus can survive

25-28 weeks

66

What do lungs of newborn infant look like on chest X-ray?

More dense because of fewer mature alveoli

67

Respiratory distress syndrome

Surfactant deficiency

68

Tx for RDS

Corticosteroids to the mother and surfactant replacement in child

69

Hylaine membrane disease

From repeated gasping inhalations that can damage alveolar lining...collaspes and creates glassy membrane