Mediastinum and Heart Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Radiology Test 2 > Mediastinum and Heart > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mediastinum and Heart Deck (71):
1

Mediastinum

Region of thoracic cavity that contains all thoracic viscera besdies lungs and surrounding pleura

2

How is mediastinum divided?

Superior and inferior by plane passing from sternal angle to inferior border of 4th thoracic vertebrae

3

Inferior mediastinum divided into

Anterior, middle, and posterior regions

4

Superior mediastinum contains

Aortic arch and all branches
Brachiocephalic veins and 1/2 of sup vena cava
Vagus, phrenic, left recurrent laryngeal nerves
Esophagus
Trachea
THoracic duct
Thymus

5

Anterior mediastinum contains

Basically nothing
Some lymph nodes and fat...thymus in children

6

Middle mediastinum contains

Heart
Pericardial sac
Ascending aorta
INferior 1/2 of sup vena cava
Termination of azygos vein
Pulmonary trunk and branches
Pulmonary veins
Phyrenic nerves

7

Posterior mediastinum contains

Bifurcation of trachea
Descending aorta
Esophagus
Azygos and hemiazygos veins
THoracic duct
Vagus and splanchnic nerves
Sympathetic chain

8

How is heart attached to diaphragm?

central tendons attached to fibrous pericardium

9

Apex of heart is where what two parts come together?

Ventricles

10

Fibrous pericardium and nerve on surface

Inelastic fibrous sac surrounding heart
Phrenic nerves

11

Parietal pericadium

Just deep to fibrous pericardium
Serous layer

12

Visceral pericardium...what is it continuous with and other name for it

Serous layer on surface of the heart
Continuous with parietal at roots of great vessels
Epicardium

13

Pericardial cavity

Space between visceral and parietal layers
Only contains a few drops of fluid

14

Adhesions of pericardial cavity

Restrict heart movement and compromise cardiac function

15

Pericarditis

INflammation of pericardium
Can have effusion into pericardial cavity and compression of the heart

16

Cardiac tamponade

Extensive fluid in pericardial cavity...compresses heart

17

Pericardiocentesis

Draining of fluid from pericardial cavity

18

Transverse pericardial sinus separates

Venous and arterial ends of the heart

19

Oblique pericardial sinus

Pocket-like recess in the pericardial cavity posterior to base of the heart

20

Transverse pericardial sinus can be used to isolate

Ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk

21

Base of heart on which surfaces?

Posterior and superior

22

Apex of heart projects which way and which intercostal space

Anterioly and inferior
5th intercostal space

23

Coronary sulcus

Atrioventricular sulcus

24

Anterior and posterior interventricular sulcus

Marks position of interventricular septum on anterior or diaphragmatic surface surface

25

Surfaces of heart

Anterior/sternocostal
Posterior (base)
Inferior or diaphragmatic

26

Auricles fucntion and derivation

Increases capacity of atria
Ear like pouches
Derived from primitive atria
Right and left atrium

27

Crista terminalis derivation and mistaken for

Muscular right in right atrium seprating smooth from rought portion of internal wall of right atrium
Intracardiac mass
Right atrium only

28

Rough and smooth portion of atria derivations

Rough - primitive atrium
Smooth - sinus vensosus

29

Pectinate muscles

Ridges on rough portion of internal wall of both right and left atria
Right and left atrium

30

Fossa ovalis and what is it a remnant of?

Depression of interatrial septum
Forament ovale
Right only

31

Trabeculae carnae

Right and left ventricles
Muscular ridges on walls

32

Papillary muscles

Right and left ventricles
Conical muscular porjections with bases attached to walls

33

Chordae tendineae

Right and left ventricles
Run from papillary muscles to free edge of AV valve cusps

34

How to AV valves stay closed during systole?

Papillary muscles contract and pull chordae tendineae tight

35

Septomarginal trabecula and function

Right ventricle only
Runs from inferior part of interventricular spetum to papillary
Facilitats coordination of electrical impulse to papillary muscles for coordinated contraction of papillary with ventricle

36

Left vs. right ventricle

Left has bicuspid valve
Thicker wall
Higher pressure

37

What enters left atrium vs right atrium

Left - pulmonary veins
Right - vena cava

38

Ventricular relaxation - aortic valve and mitral valve

Mitral valve open and aortic closed

39

Coronary sulcus

Groove on external surface of heart
Separates atria from ventricles

40

Anterior and posterior interventricular sulci

Grooves on external of heart separating right and left ventricles

41

Right coronary artery - what does it supply and what are its branches

Right atrium, right ventricle, and part of left ventricle
Marginal artery
Posterior interventricular artery

42

Marginal artery runs

Along right margin of the heart

43

Posterior interventricular artery runs

In posterior interventricular sulcus

44

Left coronary artery supplies and what are brnahces

Left atrium, left ventricle, and parts of right ventricle
Anterior interventricular artery and circumflex artery

45

Anterior interventricular artery runs

In anterior interventricular sulcus

46

Circumflex artery runs

Through coronary sulcus

47

What does it mean when we say most coronary arteries are end arteries?

Little to no anastomoses with other branches
If slow, onset of clot, anastamoses may form

48

Coronary sinus - where does it empty, what does it receive drainage from, and where is it located?

Empties into the right atrium between inferior vena cava and right atrioventricular valve
In coronary sulcus
Most veins in heart drain into ti

49

Great cardiac vein assoicated with

Anterior interventricular artery

50

Posterior vein of the left ventricle drains and what is it associated with?

Left ventricle
Circumflex artery

51

Middle cardiac vein associated with

Posterior interventricular artery

52

Small cardiac vein follows

Marginal and right coronary artery

53

Anterior cardiac veins and cardiac veins empty into

The heart chambers...NOT the coronary sinus
Most into the RA

54

SA node location and blood supply

Pacemaker of the heart
In myocardium near anterior margin of opining of SVC in right atrium
Supply from SA nodal artery from right coronary

55

AV node location and blood supply

Interatrial septum...superior and medial to opening of coranry sinus in right atrium
AV nodal artery from right coronary

56

AV bundle and division

Begins at AV node and passes through fibrous skeleton...runs along membranous part of IV septum
Divides into the left and right bundle branches at the IV septum

57

Pukinje fibers

Termination of BUndle of His in the ventricles

58

Fibrous skeleton of the heart composition and function

Anchoring point of cusps and valves
Keeps orifices patent
Forms electrical insulator
Fibrous connective tissue that surround orifices and valves

59

Innervation of the heart and nerve fibers

Cardiac plexus
Postgang sym (paravertebral)
Pre gang sym (vagus nerve)
Visceral affarent

60

Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac stimulation

Sympathetic - increase heart rate, impulse conduction, force of contraction...dilation of coronary arteries
Para - decrease HR, impulse conduction, force of contraction...constriction of coronary arteries

61

Affarent innveration of heart...waht is it sensitive to and what is it not?

Not to touch, cutting, heat, and cold
Ischemia and metabolic product accumulation stimulate pain endings in myocardium

62

Affarent pain fiber path

In cardiac nerves to sympathetic trunk

63

Axons of affarent cardiav fibers

Enter spinal cord at T1 through T4-T5

64

Cardiac pain regions

T1-T5...left pectoral region, shoulder, medial arm, and forearm

65

Visceral sensory fibers innervate ______ receptors in the heart and travel with _______ back to brainstem

Baro and chemo
Vagus nerve

66

Base of heart is where?

3rd costal cartilage

67

Apex of heart is where?

5th intercostal space

68

Aortic semilunar valve location and where to listen

3rd intercostal space (post to sternum)
Right 2nd intercostal space

69

Pulmoanry semilunar valve and where to listen

L 3rd costosternal junction
L 2nd intercostal space

70

Tricuspid valve and where to listen

R 5th costosternal junction posterior to sternum
Left lower sternal border

71

Bicupsid valve (mitral) and where to listen

4th costosternal junction
L 5th intercostal space