Perineum Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Radiology Test 2 > Perineum > Flashcards

Flashcards in Perineum Deck (39)
1

Levator ani forms

Floor of pelvis and roof of perineum

2

Blood supply and innervation of perienum

Internal pudendal artery
Pudendal nerve

3

How do internal pudendal artery and pudendal nerve leave pelvis and enter perineum

Greater sicatic foramen
Lesser sicatic foramen

4

Roof/floor of lesses sciatic foramen

Roof - sacrotuberous lig
Floor - Sacrospinous lig

5

Pudendal canal

Internal pudendal artery and pudendal nerve become covered with deep fascia and lie on obturator internus

6

Branches of internal pudendal artery nad pudendal nerve

Inferior rectal artery and nerve

7

Perineum boundaries

Pubic symphysis
L/R ischiopubic ramus
L/R ischial tuberosities
Coccyx

8

Two triangles of perineum

Urogenital triangle (anterior )
Anal triangle (posterior)

9

Orientations of triangle

Urogen - horizontal with floor
Anal - vertical

10

Urogenital triangle divided into

Deep and superficial pouch of perineum

11

Deep pouch location, composition, innervation

Below levator ani and expands entire urogen triangle
Muscle and conn tissue membrane
Voluntrary control by perineal branches of pudendal nerve

12

What must happen before micturition can occur?

Muscles of deep pouch must relax

13

Perineal membrane

Inferior membrane of deep pouch

14

External genitalia location

Below deep pouch
In the superficial pouch

15

Contents of deep pouch

Deep transverse perineal muscle
External urethral sphincter muscle
Compressor urethra (female)
Membranous urethra
Bulbourethral glands (males)
Branches of pudendal nerve - dorsal nerve and arteries of the penis and clitoris

16

Superficial pouch muscle and location to perineal membrane

Inferior
Crura of penis/clitoris
Bulb of penis/vestibular bulbs
Ischicavernosus m
Bulbospongiosus m
Greater vestibular gland m (females)
Superficial transverse perineal muscle

17

Perineal body...attachment points for

Mass of tissue in btween ischial tuberosities
Levaotr ani
Deep perineal membrane
Bulbospongiosus membrane
External anal sphincter

18

Tears of perineal body lead to

Compromise structure of pelvis/perineum...prolapse of organs and urinary incontinence

19

Scarpas fascia

Abdominal region

20

Dartos fascia

Region of scrotum and penis (no superficial fatty fascia here)

21

Colles fascia

Region of urogenital triangle (superficial fatty has disappeared)

22

Exceptions to fascial cleft between superficial and deep fascia

Scarpas fascia will fuse to fascia lata
Lateral and posterior edge of Colles will fuse to perineal membrane

23

What does Colles connection to perineal result in?

No communication between deep pouch and anal trinalge

24

Anal canal divides anal triangle into

Ischioanal fossae

25

Boundaries of anal trinalge

Superior and medial - sloping of levator ani (pelvic diaphragm)
Lateral - Obturator internus (important)
Posterior - skin

26

Pudendal (Alcock's) canal formed by ____ and contains ____

Obturator fascia
Internal pudendal artery, vein, and pudendal nerve

27

What emerges from pudendal canal

Inferior rectal arteries and nerves

28

When does rectum end?

When puborectalis encircles it

29

Internal anal sphincter composed of

Thickened continuation of inner circular layer of smooth muscle from retum

30

External sphincter composed of

Skeletal muscle

31

Anocyccygeal rphe

Attaches external sphincter to coccyx

32

Anal columns and sinuses

Folds and recesses between columns of anal canal
Mucous membrane

33

Anal valves

Join anal columns at inferior ends

34

Anal crypts and why significant?

Spaces behind anal valve
Focal point for infection...can lead to ischioanal fossa fistula

35

Pectinate line formed from

Lower margins of anal valves

36

Arterial supply above and below pec line

above - inferior mesenteric by superior rectal arteries
Below - internal pudendal by inferior rectal arteries

37

Venous drainage change at pec line

Above - hepatic portal vein by superior rectal vein
Below - caval system by inferior rectal veins

38

Lymphatic drainage change at pec line

Above - internal iliac lymph nodes (deep)
Below - inguinal lymph nodes (superficial)

39

Innervation change at pec line

Above - autonomic fibers (poor localization)
Below - Pudendal nerve (precise localization)