Flashcards in Clinically relevant anatomy of the back, spine and spinal cord Deck (42):
What is the first palpable spinous process?
What is the function of the extrinsic back muscles?
Move upper limb
What are the extrinsic back muscles?
What are the 2 groups of intrinsic back muscles?
What are the 3 muscles groups under erector spinae?
Inferiorly - common tendon attaches to sacrum and iliac crest
Superiorly - rib, transverse process and spinous process
Where can the transversospinalis muscle be found?
Located within the grooves between the transverse and spinous process
What is the main function of the transversospinalis?
Rotation of vertebrae
Elevation of ribs
Muscles of posterior abdominal wall
Which muscles control extension and lateral flexion of the spine?
What occurs if the erector spinae contracts bilaterally?
Extension of spine
What occurs if the erector spinae contracts unilaterally?
Which muscles control flexion of the spine?
Psoas major and rectus abdominus
Describe the curvatures of the vertebral column
Where are spinal nerves found?
Where can facet joints be found in the spine?
Between articular processes of adjacent vertebrae
What ligaments are present in the spine?
Posterior longitudinal ligament
Anterior longitudinal ligament
What movements will the anterior longitudinal ligament prevent?
What is the clinical relevance of the fact that the posterior longitudinal ligament is weaker than the anterior?
IV discs will herniate posterioly
What movement will the posterior longitudinal ligament help to prevent?
Overflexion of the spine
Where can the supraspinous ligament be found?
Tips of spinous processes
Where can the interspinous ligaments be found?
Connects superior and inferior surfaces of adjacent spinous processes
Which vertebrae is the atlas?
Which vertebrae has an odontoid process?
C2 - axis
What are common typical features of cervical vertebrae?
Bifid spinous process
Triangular shaped vertebral foramen
Does C1 have a vertebral body?
NO - posterior and anterior arch
What runs in the transverse foramen?
Where are the atlanto-occipital joints?
Between the occipital condyles and the superior articular facets of the atlas
What type of joint is the atlanto-occipital joint?
Which movements does the atlanto-occipital joint facilitate?
Flexion and extension of neck
Lateral flexion and rotation of neck
What are the articulations of the atlanto-axial joints?
2 between inferior articular facets of the atlas and the superior articular facets of the axis
1 between the anterior arch of the atlas and the odontoid process of the axis
What is the main movement of the atlantoaxial joint?
Where does the cauda equina with it meninges run in the sacrum?
Within the sacral canal
Where does the spinal cord begin?
At the foramen magnum, continuous with the medulla oblongata
Where does the spinal cord end?
What is the end of the spinal cord called?
Conus medullaris which becomes cauda equina
Where is a common space for an LP and an episural?
Where does the meninges end on the spinal cord?
Should you perform an LP in raised ICP?
What structures will the needle pass through to give an epidural anaesthesia?
What structures will the needle pass through to perform an LP?
What is a laminectomy?
Used to assess spinal canal, posterior exposure of spinal cord