Clinically relevant anatomy of the back, spine and spinal cord Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Clinically relevant anatomy of the back, spine and spinal cord Deck (42):
1

What is the first palpable spinous process?

C7

2

What is the function of the extrinsic back muscles?

Move upper limb

3

What are the extrinsic back muscles?

Levator scapulae
Rhomboids
Trapezius
Latissimus dorsi

4

What are the 2 groups of intrinsic back muscles?

Erector spinae
Transversospinalis

5

What are the 3 muscles groups under erector spinae?

Inferiorly - common tendon attaches to sacrum and iliac crest
Superiorly - rib, transverse process and spinous process

6

Where can the transversospinalis muscle be found?

Located within the grooves between the transverse and spinous process

7

What is the main function of the transversospinalis?

Stability
Rotation of vertebrae
Elevation of ribs

8

Muscles of posterior abdominal wall

Psoas major
Quadratus lumborum

9

Which muscles control extension and lateral flexion of the spine?

Erector spinae

10

What occurs if the erector spinae contracts bilaterally?

Extension of spine

11

What occurs if the erector spinae contracts unilaterally?

Lateral flexion

12

Which muscles control flexion of the spine?

Psoas major and rectus abdominus

13

Describe the curvatures of the vertebral column

Cervical lordosis
Thoracic kyphosis
Lumbar lordosis
Sacram kyphosis

14

Where are spinal nerves found?

Intervertebral foramen

15

Where can facet joints be found in the spine?

Between articular processes of adjacent vertebrae

16

What ligaments are present in the spine?

Ligamentum flavum
Posterior longitudinal ligament
Anterior longitudinal ligament

17

What movements will the anterior longitudinal ligament prevent?

Overextension

18

What is the clinical relevance of the fact that the posterior longitudinal ligament is weaker than the anterior?

IV discs will herniate posterioly

19

What movement will the posterior longitudinal ligament help to prevent?

Overflexion of the spine

20

Where can the supraspinous ligament be found?

Tips of spinous processes

21

Where can the interspinous ligaments be found?

Connects superior and inferior surfaces of adjacent spinous processes

22

Which vertebrae is the atlas?

C1

23

Which vertebrae has an odontoid process?

C2 - axis

24

What are common typical features of cervical vertebrae?

Transverse foramen
Bifid spinous process
Triangular shaped vertebral foramen

25

Does C1 have a vertebral body?

NO - posterior and anterior arch

26

What runs in the transverse foramen?

Vertebral arteries

27

Where are the atlanto-occipital joints?

Between the occipital condyles and the superior articular facets of the atlas

28

What type of joint is the atlanto-occipital joint?

Synovial

29

Which movements does the atlanto-occipital joint facilitate?

Flexion and extension of neck
Lateral flexion and rotation of neck

30

What are the articulations of the atlanto-axial joints?

2 between inferior articular facets of the atlas and the superior articular facets of the axis
1 between the anterior arch of the atlas and the odontoid process of the axis

31

What is the main movement of the atlantoaxial joint?

Rotation

32

Where does the cauda equina with it meninges run in the sacrum?

Within the sacral canal

33

Where does the spinal cord begin?

At the foramen magnum, continuous with the medulla oblongata

34

Where does the spinal cord end?

Around L1/2

35

What is the end of the spinal cord called?

Conus medullaris which becomes cauda equina

36

Where is a common space for an LP and an episural?

L3/4

37

Where does the meninges end on the spinal cord?

S2

38

Should you perform an LP in raised ICP?

NO

39

What structures will the needle pass through to give an epidural anaesthesia?

Supraspinous ligament
Interspinous ligament
Ligamentum flavus
Epidural space

40

What structures will the needle pass through to perform an LP?

Supraspinous ligament
Interspinous ligament
Ligamentum flavus
Epidural space
Dura mater
Arachnoid mater
Subarachnoid space

41

What is a laminectomy?

Used to assess spinal canal, posterior exposure of spinal cord

42

When is a laminectomy utilised?

Relive pressure on spinal cord or nerve roots in case of a tumour, herniated disc or bone hypertrophy