Introduction to neurones, nerve conduction and synaptic transmission Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction to neurones, nerve conduction and synaptic transmission Deck (48):
1

What is the purpose of a dendrite?

To receive inputs from other neurones and convey graded electrical signals passively to the soma

2

What is the purpose of the soma?

It is the synthetic and metabolic centre
Contains the nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria and ER
It integrates incoming electrical signals that are conducted passively to the axon hillock

3

What is the axon hillock?

Site of initiation of the "all or nothing" action potential

4

What is the function of the axon?

Conducts output signals as action potentials to the presynaptic terminal
Mediates transport of materials between the soma and presynaptic terminal and vice versa by slow and fast axonal transport

5

What is the function of the synapse?

Point of chemical communication between neurones

6

What viruses will exploit retrograde transport to infect neurones?

Herpes
Polio
Rabies

7

What are the different types of neurones?

Unipolar
Pseudounipolar
Bipolar
Multipolar

8

Where can unipolar neurones be found?

Peripheral autonomic system

9

Where can pseudounipolar neurones be found?

Dorsal root ganglion

10

Where can bipolar neurones be found?

Retina

11

Where can multipolar neurones be found?

Lower motor system

12

What is the resting potential for a neurone?

-70 mV

13

What is the threshold for a neurone?

-60 mV

14

What channels allow for the upstroke and downstroke of the action potential in neurones?

Upstroke = Na+
Downstroke = K+

15

Why do passive signals in neurones not spread far from their site of origin?

Current loss across the membrane accompanied by a reduced change in potential

16

What are strategies utilised to increase passive current speed and therefore action potential velocity?

Decreased axial resistance of the axoplasm via increased axon diameter
Increased membrane resistance - addition of myelin provided by schwann cells in PNS and oligodendrocytes in CNS

17

What is saltatory conduction?

Action potential jumping from one node of ranvier to the next

18

What are examples of demyelinating disorders?

MS (CNS)
Guillan-Barre (PNS)

19

What separates the pre and post synaptic membranes?

Synaptic cleft

20

What holds the pre and post synaptic membranes together?

A matrix of fibrous extracellular protein within the cleft

21

Where are the neurotransmitters stored in the neurone?

Vesicles within the presynaptic terminal

22

What are the different types of synapses?

Axodendritic
Axosomatic
Axoaxonic

23

What is the most common type of synapse?

Axodendritic

24

What is the most common neurotransmitter of excitatory synapses in the CNS?

Glutamate

25

What will glutamate activate?

Post synaptic, cation selective, inotropic glutamate receptors resulting in a depolarisation; excitatory postsynaptic potential

26

What are the major amino acid neurotransmitters in the CNS?

Glutamate
GABA
Glycine

27

What is the most common neurotransmitter of inhibitory synapses in the CNS?

GABA or glycine

28

What will GABA/glycine activate?

Postsynaptic, anion selective, inotropic, GABA or glycine receptors generating a local, graded hyperpolarizaing post synaptic potential

29

What is spatial summation?

Many inputs converge upon a neurone to determine its output

30

What is a temporal summation?

A single input may modulate output by variation in action potential frequency of that in put

31

What are the major amine neurotransmitters?

Dopamine
Histamine
Noradrenaline
Serotonin

32

What are the major peptic neurotransmitters?

Cholecystokinin
Dynorphin
Enkephalins
Neuropeptide Y
Somatostatin
Substance P
Thyrotropin releasing hormone
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide

33

Which neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles?

Acetylcholine
Amino acids
Amines

34

Which neurotransmitters are released from secretory vesicles?

Peptides

35

Which neurotransmitters mediate fast neurotransmission via inotropic ligand gated ion channels?

Glutamate
GABA
Glycine
Acetylcholine
Serotonin

36

Which neurotransmitters mediate slow neurotransmission via metabotropic G-protein coupled receptors?

All except glycine

37

What are the modes of neurotransmission?

Direct
Indirect

38

How does direct neurotransmission work?

Ionotropic receptors
The receptor is an integral component of the molecule that forms the channel is controls
Gating of channel is rapid

39

How does indirect neurotransmission work?

Mediated by activation of metabotropic receptors
Receptor and the channel it controls are distinct
Gating of channel is slower

40

Which channels does fast EPSP utilise?

Activation of nicotinic ACh receptors
Conduction of Na+ and K+

41

Which channels does slow EPSP utilise?

Activation of muscarinic G coupled ACh receptors
Close of M-type K+ channels

42

Which is the major excitatory neurotransmitter?

Glutamate

43

What channels will glutamate bind to?

Non-NMDA receptors to bind the agonist kainate or AMPA controlling Na+ and K+
NMDA receptors controlling channels permeable to Na+ , Ca 2+, K+

44

Which mode of transmission will non-NMDA ionotropic receptors (AMPA and kainate) mediate?

Fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS

45

Which mode of transmission will NMDA mediate?

Slow component to excitatory synaptic potential

46

Which ion will NMDA receptors have a high permeability to?

Ca 2+

47

Which drugs act on NMDA receptors?

Ketamine
Psychotomimetic agents such as phencyclidine

48

Which pathway relies on ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors?

Retinal