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Flashcards in Pattern Recognition (revision) Deck (53)
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31

Corticospinal tract origin and parts

Origin: primary motor cortex of precentral gyrus
Lateral (primary decussation) = voluntary motor control of limbs and digits
Anterior corticospinal (segmental decussation) = voluntary motor control of trunk and maintains posture

32

Corticobulbar tracts origin and function

Origin: primary motor cortex in precentral gyrus
Function: muscles of face, head and neck

33

Which CN do NOT have a bilateral innervation to their nuclei?

CN 12
Lower part of 7; if there is forehead sparing this is an UMN lesion of facial nerve

34

Rubrospinal tract origin and function

Origin: red nucleus of midbrain
Function: excites flexors and inhibits extensors of upper body

35

Reticulospinal tract origin and function

Origin: pons/medulla
Function: excites extensors

36

Which motor tract is in charge in decorticate rigidity?

Lesion above midbrain
Rubrospinal tract; flexion of upper limbs

37

Which motor tract is in charge in decerebrate rigidity?

Lesion below midbrain
Reticulospinal tract; extension

38

DCML function and route

Function; fine touch, pressure and vibration
Decussates in medulla to contralateral medial lemniscus to reach the primary somatosensory cortex in the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe

39

Difference between gracile fasciculus and cuneate fasiculus

Gracile; legs, below T6
Cuneatus; arms; above T6
Gracile medial to cuneate in spinal cord

40

Spinothalamic tract function and pathway

Function: pain and temp
Decussates segmentally in spinal cord to reach opposite primary somatosensory cortex

41

Extradural haemorrhage:
Location
Origin
Presentation
Symptoms
Ix
Imaging findings

L: skull and dura
O: middle meningeal artery
Px: injury to pterion
Sy: unconscious then lucid interval then unconscious
Ix: CT
Findings: hyperdense biconvex lens appearance

42

Chronic subdural haemorrhage
Location
Origin
Presentation
Symptoms
Ix
Imaging findings

L: dura and arachnoid
Origin: cerebral bridging veins
Px: older patients due to low impact trauma
Sy: progressive headache and confusion
Ix; CT
Findings: hypodense crescent shaped appearance

43

SAH
Location
Origin
Presentation
Symptoms
Ix
Imaging findings

L: arachnoid and pia
Origin: arterial; commonly berry aneurysm
Px: severe head injuries or ruptured berry
Sy: thunderclap headache, meningeal irritation (neck stiffness, photophobia), loss of consciousness
Ix: CT initially. Definitive diagnosis is CTA
Findings; hyperdense in SA space. Commonly star shaped

44

Symptoms of cerebral herniation

Extensor response
Cushing's triad; hypertx, brady, agonal breathing
Uncal herniation = blown pupil

45

Where can you find the dual venous sinuses?

Outer and inner dura

46

Expressive dysphasia

Brocas area

47

Receptive dysphasia

Wernicke's area

48

Nystagmus, intention tremor and dysarthria

Cerebellum

49

Temperature control

Hypothalamus

50

Oculomotor nucleus

Midbrain

51

Most common cause of hydrocephalus in children

Aqueduct stenosis - non-communicating hydrocephlus

52

Sy of aqueduct stenosis?

Growth in head circumference
Eyelids retracted; sunsetting eyes
Upward gaze impaired
Failure to thrive

53

What GCS indicates comatomse?

8 or less