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Flashcards in Week 1.0 - development Deck (38)
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What composes the duct system in males?

-Ductus deferens


What composes the duct system in females?

-Fallopian tubes


What is the indifferent stage of development?

-The gonad and duct system at the point which it is the same regardless of sex


When does structural development of the genitalia occur and how does this differ from functional development and maturation?

-Structural development in utero
-Functional development and maturation continues after birth


What is meant by sexual maturation?

-Born physically immature
-Sexual maturation occurs as puberty and development of secondary sexual characteristics


State the secondary sexual characteristics which occur in males

-bigger body size (relative to female)
-Body composition and fat distribution
-Hair and skin
-Facial hair and male pattern baldness
-CNS effects


State the secondary sexual characteristics which occur in females

-Smaller body size (relative to males)
-Subcutaneous fat distribution
-Hair and skin
-Breast development
-CNS effects


What is the urogenital ridge?

-Region of intermediate mesoderm which gives rise to the embryonic kidney and the gonad


What tissues contribute to the gonad?

-Intermediate mesoderm
-Primordial germ cells (extragonadal)


What are primordial germ cells? How do they contribute to the gonad?

-Special population of cells identified from the yolk sac wall
-Migrate into the retroperitoneum along dorsal mesentery through umbilicus and arrive at gonad
-Populate mesodermal stroma


On a genetic level, what drives development of the male?

-Expression of SRY genes in primordial germ cells


Which structures do SRY genes affect?

-Duct system
-External genitalia


What affect does SRY have on the gonads?

-Causes differentiation into testis by development of medullary cords, no cortical cord development and thickening of the tunica albuginea


What determines the sex of an embryo?

-What chromosome the male gamete is carrying


How does the absence of a Y chromosome influence an indifferent gonad?

-Medullary cord degenerates
-Cortical cords develop
-No tunica aluginea


Why is it important that an ovary doesnt have a thick tunica albuginea?

Allows ova to be released


What are the names of the two duct systems involved in genital development?

-Mesonephric ducts (wolffian)
-Paramesonephric (mullarian)


Where do the mesonephric and paramesonephric ducts end?



As well as gonadal function, what do the mesonephric ducts function to do?

-Embryonic kidney


What is the cloaca?

-The point at which the reproductive, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts end early in development


What is the urogenital sinus?

-Structure which forms from the hind gut by the urorectal septum and makes the future bladder and urethra (plus prostate in males and vagina in females)


Describe the development of the bladder and urethra from the urogenital sinus in the male

-Mesonephric ducts reach urogenital sinus
-Ureteric bud sprouts from mesonephric duct
-As MD makes contact with UGS, causes smooth muscle differentiation and trigone formation, bladder expansion
-UB and MDs make independent openings in UGS as it absorbs both ducts at separate points.
-Contact and development leads to formation of prostate


Describe the development of the bladder and urethra from the urogenital sinus in the female

-MDs reach UGS
-UBs sprout from MDs
-UGS begins to expand and SM appears as MDs make contact
-The absence of androgens causes MD to begin to regress and UB is absorbed by UGS
-Prostate is not formed due to absence of androgens


Where are the paramesonephric ducts and where do they come from?

-Appear from invaginations of the urogenital ridge and are lateral to the mesonephric ducts


What is the significance of the paramesonehric ducts opening into the peritoneal cavity at the cranial end?

-Future fallopian tubes open into peritoneal cavity


Describe how the mullarian ducts develop into the uterus and fallopian tubes

-As the paramesonephric ducts develop they grow towards each other, pulling the peritoneum with it
-They fuse in the midline and develop into the uterus and uterine tubes.
-As they fuse a septum is formed in the middle of the uterus, this regresses during development


What inductive event is caused by contact of paramesonephric ducts with UGS?

-Growth and extension of the UGS into vagina


From where is the vagina derived?

-Lower 2/3 UGS
-Upper 1/3 paramesonephric duct


What is the cause of a unicornate uterus?

-Failed regression of uterine septum


Why do the paramesonephric ducts not develop in the male?

-Testis produce mullarian inhibiting hormone causing degeneration of the ducts