Flashcards in Week 12.0 - Gynae Tumours Deck (40):
What is CIN?
-Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia -> premalignant changes of the cervix (dysplasia)
How long does CIN I take to progess to CINIII?
What risk factor gives you the highest risk of developing CIN?
-HPV 16 and 18
Which part of the cervix is most commonly affected by CIN?
Besides HPV, give 3 risk factors for CIN
-Longterm use of OCP
-Partner with carcinoma of the penis
Describe 3 disease factors which make cervical screening a good programme
-3rd most common female cancer -> relevant
-Natural history and progression of disease well understood
-Has an early detectable stage
What is the most common type of cervical cancer?
At what age does cervical cancer typically occur?
-Average age is 45
How does cervical cancer characteristically spread?
-Locally to para-cervical soft tissues eg bladder, rectum
-Lymphatics to surrounding lymph nodes
How does cervical cancer usually present?
-Post-coital, intermenstrual or post-menopausal bleeding
What is endometrial hyperplasia a precursor to?
What is the main risk factor for endometrial carcinoma?
-Prolonged oestrogen exposure
eg exogenous oestrogen, increased oestrogen from endogenous sources eg adipose, annovulation
When does endometrial adenocarcinoma commonly occur?
-between ages 55-75 (rare before 40)
What are the two main types of endometrial adenocarcinoma and state the differences between them
-Endometrioid -> Common, glandular proliferation, arising after endometrial hyperplasia,
-Serous -> poorly differentiated, aggressive, worse prognosis, exfoliates
What is a leiomyoma?
-Fibroid -> beinign tumour of smooth muscle of myometrium
Where does leiomyosacroma metastasise?
When do malignant ovarian tumours commonly occur?
Why does ovarian cancer have a poor survival rate?
-Often spread to other sites by the time it presents
Which tumour marker can be used to monitor ovarian cancer?
Which genetic mutation is linked to ovarian cancer?
Give some risk factors for ovarian epithelial tumours
-Null or low parity
What are the 4 groups of ovarian tumours?
Why are serous ovarian tumours associated with acites?
-Exfoliative and thus seed to the peritoneum
What is pseudomyxoma perinotei
-An extensive mucinous ascites caused by mets to the peritoneum, often involves the ovaries but the primary is the appendix
What is the most common germ cell tumour?
Besides teratoma, give another germ-cell tumour
-Yolk sac tumour
What is a-fetoprotein?
-A tumour marker which is used in yolk sac tumours and liver tumours
In who do mature teratomas most commonly occur?
What is struma ovarii?
-Monodermal teratoma consisting solely of thyroid tissue
What is meant by a sex-chord tumour being feminising or masculinising?
-Can contain any of the 4 sex cells eg granulosa, theca, sertoli or leydig, thus can produce testosterone or oestrogen
Typically at what age does vulva cancer occur?
What types of vulva cancer are there?
-Extramammary pagets disease
With which infection is vulva cancer associated with? What age group does this affect?
What age group does vulva cancer not associated with HPV affect?
What is VIN?
-Vulva intraepithelial Neoplasia
-An in situ precursor with no mucosal invasion.
-Often white patches on mucosa or brown patches on anus
What are the 3 major types of gestational tumours?
What is a hydatidiform mole?
-Molar pregnancy when all the cells are dedicated to the outercell mass (trophoblast)
What is an invasive mole?
-Hydatidiform mole which penetrates and invades the endometrium/myometrium
Why is an invasive mole so dangerous?
-Invasion can be extensive leading to haemorrhage and local destruction of tissue. (needs to be treated with chemo)