Week 12.0 - Gynae Tumours Flashcards Preview

Repro > Week 12.0 - Gynae Tumours > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 12.0 - Gynae Tumours Deck (40):
1

What is CIN?

-Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia -> premalignant changes of the cervix (dysplasia)

2

How long does CIN I take to progess to CINIII?

-7 years

3

What risk factor gives you the highest risk of developing CIN?

-HPV 16 and 18

4

Which part of the cervix is most commonly affected by CIN?

-Transformation zone

5

Besides HPV, give 3 risk factors for CIN

-Sexual intercourse
-Multiple births
-Longterm use of OCP
-Partner with carcinoma of the penis

6

Describe 3 disease factors which make cervical screening a good programme

-3rd most common female cancer -> relevant
-Natural history and progression of disease well understood
-Has an early detectable stage

7

What is the most common type of cervical cancer?

-SCC

8

At what age does cervical cancer typically occur?

-Average age is 45

9

How does cervical cancer characteristically spread?

-Locally to para-cervical soft tissues eg bladder, rectum
-Lymphatics to surrounding lymph nodes

10

How does cervical cancer usually present?

-Screening abnormality
-Post-coital, intermenstrual or post-menopausal bleeding

11

What is endometrial hyperplasia a precursor to?

-Endometrial carcinoma

12

What is the main risk factor for endometrial carcinoma?

-Prolonged oestrogen exposure
eg exogenous oestrogen, increased oestrogen from endogenous sources eg adipose, annovulation

13

When does endometrial adenocarcinoma commonly occur?

-between ages 55-75 (rare before 40)

14

What are the two main types of endometrial adenocarcinoma and state the differences between them

-Endometrioid -> Common, glandular proliferation, arising after endometrial hyperplasia,
-Serous -> poorly differentiated, aggressive, worse prognosis, exfoliates

15

What is a leiomyoma?

-Fibroid -> beinign tumour of smooth muscle of myometrium

16

Where does leiomyosacroma metastasise?

-Lungs

17

When do malignant ovarian tumours commonly occur?

-45-65

18

Why does ovarian cancer have a poor survival rate?

-Often spread to other sites by the time it presents

19

Which tumour marker can be used to monitor ovarian cancer?

-CA125

20

Which genetic mutation is linked to ovarian cancer?

-BRCA

21

Give some risk factors for ovarian epithelial tumours

-Null or low parity
-Smoking
-BRCA

22

What are the 4 groups of ovarian tumours?

-Mullarian epithelial
-Germ cell
-Sex cord
-Mets

23

Why are serous ovarian tumours associated with acites?

-Exfoliative and thus seed to the peritoneum

24

What is pseudomyxoma perinotei

-An extensive mucinous ascites caused by mets to the peritoneum, often involves the ovaries but the primary is the appendix

25

What is the most common germ cell tumour?

-Teratoma

26

Besides teratoma, give another germ-cell tumour

-Yolk sac tumour

27

What is a-fetoprotein?

-A tumour marker which is used in yolk sac tumours and liver tumours

28

In who do mature teratomas most commonly occur?

-Young women

29

What is struma ovarii?

-Monodermal teratoma consisting solely of thyroid tissue

30

What is meant by a sex-chord tumour being feminising or masculinising?

-Can contain any of the 4 sex cells eg granulosa, theca, sertoli or leydig, thus can produce testosterone or oestrogen

31

Typically at what age does vulva cancer occur?

-Over 60

32

What types of vulva cancer are there?

-BCC
-SCC
-Malignant melanoma
-Extramammary pagets disease

33

With which infection is vulva cancer associated with? What age group does this affect?

-HPV (16)
-6th decade

34

What age group does vulva cancer not associated with HPV affect?

-8th decade

35

What is VIN?

-Vulva intraepithelial Neoplasia
-An in situ precursor with no mucosal invasion.
-Often white patches on mucosa or brown patches on anus

36

What are the 3 major types of gestational tumours?

-Hydatidiform mole
-Invasive mole
-Choriocarcinoma

37

What is a hydatidiform mole?

-Molar pregnancy when all the cells are dedicated to the outercell mass (trophoblast)

38

What is an invasive mole?

-Hydatidiform mole which penetrates and invades the endometrium/myometrium

39

Why is an invasive mole so dangerous?

-Invasion can be extensive leading to haemorrhage and local destruction of tissue. (needs to be treated with chemo)

40

What is a gestational choriocarcinoma?

-Malignant neoplasm of trophoblast cells which is rapidly invasive and metastasises