Week 4.0 - Male Reproductive tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 4.0 - Male Reproductive tract Deck (45):
1

What is the scrotum?

-A cutaneous sac developed from labioscrotal folds which contains the testis, epididymis and spermatic cord (first part)

2

Describe the layers of the testis

-Tunica Albuginea
-Tunica Vaginalis
-Internal spermatic fascia
-Cremastic muscle and fascia
-External spermatic fascia
-Dartos
-Skin

3

How are the testis organised?

-Lobules of seminiferous tubules divided by fibrous septae

4

Describe the descent of the testis

-Gonads develop on urogenital ridge on posterior abdominal wall
-Descend behind the peritoneum through the abdomen
-Take an oblique passageway across anterior abdominal wall, following processes vaginalis, forming inguinal canal

5

Describe the arterial supply and venous drainage of the testis

-Arterial supply is directly from abdominal aorta
-Venous drainage R testicular vein to IVC, L testicular vein to L renal vein then L IVC

6

What connects the lobules of seminiferous tubules and the epididymis?

-Rete testis and efferent ductules

7

What does the spermatic cord contain?

-Testicular A, cremasteric A, artery to vas deferens,
-Pampiniform plexus
-Genital nerve (from genitofemoral nerve)
-Lymphatics
-Ductus deferens
-Processus Vaginalis

8

Where is the spermatic cord?

-From the deep inguinal ring to posterior border of testis via inguinal canal and superficial inguinal ring

9

What is the pampiniform plexus?

-Sophisticated venous drainage of the testis
-> acts as a heat exchanger as arterial blood passes into testis at core body temp but spermatogenesis is optimal at a few degrees lower -> venous drainage wraps arouns artery to allow heat to dissipate

10

Where is the internal spermatic fascia derived from?

-Transversalis fascia

11

Where is the cremasteric muscle and fascia derived from?

-Internal oblique and transversalis fascia

12

Where is the external spermatic fascia derived from?

-Aponeurosis of external oblique

13

Define hydrocoele

-Swelling in the scrotum caused by serous fluid in tunica vaginalis

14

Define Haematocoele

-Swelling in the scrotum causes by blood in tunica vaginalis

15

Define varicocoele

-Varicosities of pampiniform plexus

16

Define spematocoele

-Epididymal cyst

17

What is epididymitis?

-Inflammation of the epididymis often caused by STI

18

How do you determine between hydrocoele and haematocoele?

-Transillumination
-White light = hydrocoele
-Pink light = haematocoele

19

What is an inguinal hernia?

-Outpocketing of bowel which has pushed through the anterior abdominal wall
-Direct through hesselbachs triangle
-Indirect through deep inguinal ring -> inguinal canal

20

What is the predisposing developmental factor to an indirect hernia?

-Reopening of processus vaginalis allowing communication between peritoneal cavity and scrotum

21

What is testicular torsion?

-Twisting of the testicles usually above the upper pole -> risk of necrosis

22

Describe the innervation to the testis

-Anterior = lumbar plexus
-Posterior/inferior = sacral plexus

23

Describe the lymphatic drainage of the testis and scrotum

-Testis drains to paraaortic nodes
-Scrotum drains to superficial inguinal nodes

24

Describe the course of the ductus deferens

-Ascends from the testes in spermatic cord
-Traverses inguinal canal
-Tracks around pelvic side wall
-Passes between ureter and bladder
-Forms dilated ampulla
-Opens into ejaculatory duct

25

What are the seminal vesicles?

-Outpuching of ductus deferens forming a glandular structure which secretes important ejaculate components

26

What forms the ejaculatory ducts?

-seminal vesicles combining with ductus deferens on both sides form one duct within prostate

27

What is the prostate?

-A fibromuscular gland which secretes components of ejaculate

28

Describe the anatomical relationships at the base of the prostate

-combines with neck of bladder

29

Describe the anatomical relationships at the apex of the prostate

-Attaches to urethral sphincter and perineal muscles

30

Describe the anatomical relationships at the anterior of the prostate

-Attaches to urethral sphincter

31

Describe the anatomical relationships at the posterior of the prostate

-Attaches to ampulla of rectum

32

Describe the structural organisation of the prostate

-Organised into central, transitional and peripheral zones

33

Describe the origins of the zones of the prostate

-Central zone from wolffian ducts
-Peripheral zone from UGS

34

Describe Benign Prostate Hyperplasia and its symptoms

-Proliferation of the central zone of prostate, often causing obstruction of the internal urethral orifice
-Dysuria, nocturia and urgency

35

Which part of the prostate do malignancies often affect? Why is this clinially significant?

-Peripheral zones
-Present later as has to get very large before it affects micturition

36

How does prostatic malignancy often spread?

-Lymphatics via internal iliac and sacral nodes
-Venous routes via internal vertebral plexus to vertebrae and brain

37

What two characteristics are assessed during DRE?

-Size and consistency of prostate

38

Describe the internal structure of the penis

-Pair of corpora cavernosa dorsally
-Single corpus spongiosum ventrally

39

Through which part of the penis does the urethra pass?

-Corpus spongiosum

40

Which arteries supply the penis and perineum?

-Branches of internal pudendal (which is branch of anterior internal iliac)

41

Which muscles are the main contributors to the male perineum?

-Bulbospongiosus
-Ischiocavernosus

42

What is the function of bulbospongiosus in males?

-Wraps around root of penis to help expel last drops of urine and maintain erection

43

What is the function of ischiocavernosus in males?

-Compress the veins and therefore help maintain the erection

44

Which is the least distensible part of the male urethra? Why? Why is this clinically significant?

-Membranous
-Confined by peritoneum and perineal floor
-Likely to meet resistance here during passage of catheter

45

Name the peritoneal pouch in the male

-Rectovesical pouch