Week 1.1 - Origin of the gametes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 1.1 - Origin of the gametes Deck (57):
1

How many gametes are produced in a lifetime by oogenesis/spermatogenesis?

-approx 400 in oogenesis
-approx 200 million a day in spermatogenesis

2

Which gamete production is continuous and which is intermittent?

-Spermatogenesis is continuous
-Oogenesis is intermittent (once a month)

3

What are the two main functions of meiosis?

-Reduce chromosome number in gamete to 23
-Ensure every gamete is genetically unique

4

How many gametes produced from meiosis?

-4

5

How does genetic variation arise in meiosis?

-Crossing over (exchange of DNA between to homologous chromosomes)
-Random segregation (Distribution of chromosomes among four gametes)
-Independent assortment (Two homologous chromosomes of a pair go to separate gametes

6

What is the sequence during differentiation in spermatogenesis?

-Germ cell -> spermatogonium -> primary spermocyte -> secondary spermocyte -> Spermatid -> spermatozoon

7

What is spermiogenesis?

-Maturation of a spermatid into spermatozoon

8

How long does spermatogenesis take?

-64 days

9

What is the function of ad/ap spermatogonium?

-Ad spermatogonium replenishes germ cell stock
-Ap spermatogonium progress to spermatozoa

10

Where does spermatogenesis take place?

-Seminiferous tubules in testis

11

What are sertoli cells and where are they found?

-Cells which nourish the developing sperm
-Found lining the seminiferous tubules and interwoven between spermatogonia

12

Within the tubules, how is differentiation arranged?

-Germ cells line the basal lamina of a tubule and become more differentiated towards the lumen

13

What is the sertoli cell barrier (blood testis barrier)? Why is it important?

-Tight junction barrier between germline cells and spermatozoa
-Cellular environment for differentiation of sperm not suitable for germ cells
-Also prevents autoimmune response due to genetic differences in spermatozoa

14

Do all spermatogonia mature at the same time?

-No, different areas of the seminiferous tubule mature at different times
-Different groups mature together because cytoplasmic bridges join some spermatogonia together. This produces a spiral pattern of differentiation along the seminiferous tubule towards the lumen

15

What is spermatogenic wave?

-The distance between two identical stages of maturation along a tubule

16

What is a spermatogenic cycle?

-The time taken for the reappearance of the same stage in a given segment
-About 16 days

17

What is spermiation?

-Release of spermatids into the lumen of seminiferous tubules

18

Describe when and where spermatids mature into spermatozoa?

-when they are Released into lumen of seminiferous tubules they are carried to the rete testis and into the epididymis. They are remodelled as they do, finally becoming spermatozoa in the epididymis

19

When do the spermatozoa become motile?

-When they reach the epididymis

20

If sperm are non-motile until the epididymis, how do they get there?

-They are carried by sertoli cell secretions and peristaltic action

21

How much semen is produced per ejaculate?

-2ml

22

What are the constituents of semen?

-Seminal vesicle secretions (70%)
-Secretions of prostate (25%)
-Sperm (2-5%)
-Bulbourethral gland secretions

23

What are seminal vesicle secretions comprised of?

-Amino acids
-Cirtate
-Fructose
-Prostaglandins

24

What are prostatic secretions comprised of?

-Proteolytic enzymes
-Zinc

25

How many sperm per ejaculate?

-200-500 million

26

What is the purpose of bulbourethral gland secretions?

-Neutralise acid in distal urethra
-Lubricate urethra

27

State the structures sperm passes on its way to ejaculation

-Epididymis
-Vas deferens
-Pass seminal vesicles
-Passes through prostate
-Passes bulbourethreal glands
-urethra

28

What comprises the ejaculatory ducts?

-The union of the vas deferens with the seminal vesicles

29

What is sperm capacitation?

-Final step before sperm become fertile
-Under the conditions of the female genitalia tract glycoproteins and cholesterol are removed from the plasma membrane of the sperm and there is activation of sperm signalling pathways
-Allows sperm to bind to zona pellucida of oocyte and initiate acrosome reaction

30

What must sperm be incubated in in IVF?

-Capacitation media

31

What is the acrosome reaction?

-Breaking through the zona pellucida by enzymatic reactions

32

Are female gametes produced throughout life?

-No, entire stock of potential gametes developed before birth

33

In females, what happens to gamete stock during age?

-Declines by atresia

34

How does a germ cell in the female develop into a primary oocyte?

-Germcells differentiate into oogonia
-Proliferate rapidly by mitosis
-Oogonia become surounded by flat epithelial cells
-Majority continue to divide by mitosis but some enter meiosis
-Meiosis arrests in prophase I -> these are primary oocytes

35

At what point in gestation is the maximum number of germ cells reached? Approximately how many?

-Mid gestation
-7 million

36

What happens once the maxmum number of oogonia are reached?

-Atresia begins and many oogonia and primary oocytes degenerate until majority have degenerated (by 7th month) (selection)
-Approximately 2 million remain, all primary oocytes

37

What is a primordial follicle?

-A single primary oocyte, halted in prophase I (also known as diplotene stage), surrounded by follicular cells.

38

What happens to the primordial follicles between birth and puberty?

-Atresia continues until around 40,000 remain at puberty

39

When puberty begins, what happeds to the primordial follicles?

-15-20 ooytes begin to mature each month passing through three stages of maturation:
Preantral
Antral
Preovulatory

40

If 15-20 oocytes begin maturation each month, why is only 1 (sometimes 2) ova ovulated?

-Atresia continues

41

Describe the preantral stage of oocyte maturation

-Primordial follicle begins to grow
-Surrounding follicular cells change from flat to cuboidal and proliferate to produce a stratified epithelium of granulosa cells

42

What is the function of the granulosa cells in a maturing oocyte?

-Secrete a layer of glycoprotein on the oocyte producing zona pellucida

43

Describe the antral state of oocyte maturation

-As development of the primordial follicle continues, fluid filled spaces appear between the granulosa cells which coalesce to produce the antrum

44

What is the name of the granulosa cells which directly surround the oocyte? What is their function?

-Cumulus oophorus
-Protect and nature oocyte

45

Describe a secondary follicle

-Primary oocyte at one pole of follicle surrounded by cumulus oophorus
-Large antrum formed surrounded by granulosa cells, theca interna and theca externa

46

Describe the preovulatory stage of oocyte maturation

-Meiosis I completed resulting in two haploid daughter cells of unequal size
-One cell received most of the cytoplasm (secondary oocyte), the other (first polar body) receives practically none
- Secondary oocyte (and polar body) enters meiosis II but arrests in meiosis II, approx 3 hours before ovulation

47

What induces the preovulatory stage of oocyte maturation?

-LH surge

48

When is meiosis II completed?

-Only if the oocyte is fertilised

49

What happens if the oocyte is not fertilised?

-Oocyte degenerates approx 24 hours after ovulation

50

What stimulates rapid growth of the follicle several days before ovulation?

-FSH and LH

51

What is a graafian follicle?

-A mature follicle ready for ovulation

52

How is the secondary oocyte released from the mature follicle and ovary?

-LH surge increases collagenase activity to break down collagen matrix
-Prostaglandins increase in response to LH and cause local muscular contractions in ovarian wall
-Oocyte extruded and breaks free from ovary

53

What happens to the remnants of the follicle after ovulation?

-Remains in the ovary and forms corpus luteum
-Granulosa and theca interna cells become vasularized
-Develop yellowish pigment and change into lutein cells

54

What is the purpose of corpus luteum?

-Secrete progesterone and oestrogen to stimulate uterine mucosa to enter secretory stage in preparation for embryo implantation

55

What happens to the corpus luteum of fertilisation doesnt occur?

-Regresses and degenerates
-Forms a mass of scar tissue (corpus albicans)
-Progesterone production decreases precipitating menstrual bleeding

56

How does the secondary oocyte travel from the ovary to the uterus?

-Fimbrae sweep over surface of ovary shortly before ovulation
-Uterine tubes begin to contract rhythmically
-Oocyte carried into tube by sweeping movements of fimbrae and by motion of cilia on epithelial lining
-Propelled by peristaltic contractions of tube and cilia on lining towards uterus

57

What happens to the corpus luteum if fertilisation occurs?

-Degeneration prevented by hCG
-Corpus luteum continues to grow and forms corpus luteum graviditatis
-Continues to secrete progesterone until 4th month of gestation until progesteone secretion from placenta is adequate