Week 3.0 - Puberty and menopause Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 3.0 - Puberty and menopause Deck (53)
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1

Define Puberache

-Development of axillary and pubic hair

2

Define menarche

-First menstrual period

3

Define adrenache

-onset of increased androgen secretion

4

What is puberty?

-Stage of human development when sexual maturation and growth are completed and results in the ability to reproduce

5

Who begins puberty first girls or boys?

-Girls

6

Define thelarche

-Development of breast

7

Describe the main features of puberty

-Accelerated somatic growth
-maturation of gonads and genitals
-Development of secondary sexual characteristics
-Menstruation and spermatogenesis begins (reproductive system inactive before this)

8

With what hormonal changes is the onset of puberty associated with?

-Gradual activation of GnRH causing steady rise in FSH and LH
-Increased secretion of oestrogens and androgens
-Extragonadal hormonal changes -> elevation of adrenal steroids and IGF-1

9

Which hormones is the growth spurt dependent upon?

-Growth Hormone
-Sex steroid hormones

10

What is the difference between the growth spurt in girls and boys?

-Earlier and shorter in girls
(men are larger because growth spurt longer and slightly faster)

11

What signifies the end of the growth spurt?

-Epiphyseal fusion

12

What causes the growth spurt to be shorter in girls?

-Oestrogen closes the epiphyseal plates earlier

13

What controls the rate of genital development in boys?

-Testosterone

14

When does puberty typically begin in girls?

-8-13 years (mean 11.5 years)

15

When does puberty typically begin in boys?

-10-14 years (mean 12.5 years)

16

What is the critical weight for menarche?

-47kg

17

What is the relationship between weight and menstruation?

-If weight falls below ~47kgs then reproductive cycle will cease
-Overweight tend to start period early
-Obesity can also interfere with normal menstruation

18

Name one environmental factor thought to influence puberty?

-Light/dark exposure ie day length
-Altitude

19

What happens to the LH pulses on lead upto puberty?

-Pulses are negligible and then increase in amplitude and frequency

20

What is the first phenotypic change in girls?

-Breast development

21

What is the first phenotypic change in boys?

-Testicular enlargement

22

What is the relationship between sleep and LH?

-LH secretion is associated with REM sleep and begins as nocturnal pulsatility which causes a noturnal increase in sex steroid secretion

23

What initiates gonadal development in puberty?

-high levels of FSH and LH secretion

24

What happens after the gonads have started to develop in males?

-Spermatogenesis and androgen secretion begins
-Androgens initiate growth of sex accessory structures (eg prostate) and secondary sex characteristics

25

The adrenal glands secrete androgens, why does this not initiate puberty?

-Level too low

26

What is the relationship between TSH and puberty?

-As puberty starts TSH secretion from pituitary increases leading to increased metabolic rate and promotes tissue growth

27

What effects do androgens have on growth?

-Cause retention of mineral to support bone and muscle growth

28

Which sex steroid do sertoli cells secrete?

-Oestrogen

29

Which secondary sex characteristics are driven by androgens in females?

-Pubic hair growth
-Bone growth
-Sebaceous gland secretion

30

Where are androgens released from in women?

-Adrenals