Week 9.1 - fetal growth and development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 9.1 - fetal growth and development Deck (38):
1

When is the fetal period?

-9 to 38 weeks

2

What is the organogenetic period?

-embryonic period characterised by intense activity but small absolute growth

3

When does CRL increase most rapidly?

-Pre-embryonic,, embryonic and early fetal periods

4

When does weight gain increase?

-Mid and late fetal period

5

When does protein and adipose deposition occur?

-Protein in early fetal period
-Adipose in late fetal period

6

Why can pre-term babies have difficulty maintaining their own body temp?

-Adipose deposition doesnt occur till late fetal period so may be inadequate to control temp

7

Describe the body proportions just before the fetal period (ie week 9)

-Head is half CRL

8

State 3 ways ante-natal assessment of fetal well-being can be made

-Fetal movements as felt by mother (quickening)
-Regular measurements of symphysis-fundal height
-Ultrasouns scan

9

Why is an ultrasound scan used in obstetrics?

-Safe and cheap
-Can be used to calculate age, number of fetuses, rule out ectopic, location of baby etc
-Assess growth and fetal anomalies

10

How is fetal age estimated?

-Last menstrual period
-Developmental criteria
-CRL in T1

11

Why is LMP prone to inaccuracy?

-Irregular menstuation
-Implantation bleeding

12

Why can CRL only be used in T1 to estimate EDD?

-Becomes more unreliable further into pregnancy due to variations in fetus size

13

What is biparietal diameted? What is it used for?

-Distance between the parietal bones of the fetus
-Used in conjunction with other measurements such as femur length and abdominal diameter to date the pregnancy in T2/3

14

Describe the average birthweight, growth restriction and macrosomia

-3500g = average
-4500g = macrosomia

15

When in pregnancy does the respiratory system develop and why does this effect pre-term survival?

-Relatively late into the fetal period
-Many babies born pre-term do not have a developed resp system to support life

16

What part of development regarding the respiratory system occurs in the embryonic period?

-Development of the resp diverticulum, tracheooesophageal septum and separation of GI and resp tract forming the bronchopulmonary tree

17

What happens regarding the resp system between weeks 8-16 of development?

-Pseudoglandular stage -> Bronchiole formation as there is elaboration of the duct system within the bronchopulmonary tree

18

What happens between weeks 16-26 regarding the respiratory system during fetal development?

-Canilicular stage -> Formation of resp bronchiole as they bud from the bronchioles formed in the pseudoglandular stage

19

What happens regarding the respiratory system in weeks 26-term of fetal development?

-Terminal sac stage -> Terminal sacs begin to bud from the resp bronchioles and cells differentiate into T1 and T2 pneumocytes

20

What drives the differentiation of T1 anf T2 pneumocytes during fetal respiratory development?

-Exposure to amniotic fluid

21

What is the major significant event which can occur after the differentiation of the pneumocytes in the terminal sacs?

-Production of sufficient surfactant to keep the lungs open after partuition

22

Why is it vital the lungs undergo breathing movements in utero, even though they do not partake in gas exchange?

-Develop the resp musculature needed to sustain life

23

Why is it vital the lungs are exposed to amniotic fluid in utero?

-It is crucial for normal lung development

24

Why is the respiratory system involved in the threshold of viability?

-There is a limit beyond which the lungs will not be sufficiently developed to sustain life (before they have entered the terminal sac stage of development ~24 weeks)

25

What is respiratory distress syndrome?

-Syndrome which effect pre-term neonates whereby there is insufficient surfactant production to adequately allow sufficient respiration

26

What pharmacologcal intervention can be given to mothers in order to boost surfactant production if a premature birth is unavoidable?

-Glucocorticoid injection

27

When is the definitive fetal heart rate achieved?

-~15 weeks

28

When does fetal kidney function begin?

~week 10

29

Fetal kindey function is not necessary for survival in utero, however what complication would ensue?

-oligohyrdamnios

30

Give 2 causes of oligohydramnios

-Placental insufficiency
-Fetal renal impairment

31

What is oligohydramnios/polyhydramnios?

-Too little amniotic fluid
-Too much amniotic fluid

32

Name 2 causes of polyhydramnios

-Idiopathic
-Inability to swallow amiotic fluid eg misplaces tracheoesophageal septum

33

When does the nervous system develop in relation to all the other systems?

-First to begin and last to finish

34

What are the corticospinal tracts required for and when do they begin to develop?

-Voluntary movement
-4th month

35

When does myelination of the brain occur?

-Begins in the 9th month and completes in the year after

36

What is meant by the baby practicing for natal life?

-At about 8 weeks onwards involuntary sensory and motor systems develop and thus suckling and brething movements begin

37

What is quickening and how is it used?

-Maternal awaremess of fetal movement from approximately wk 17 onwards
-Low cost simple method of ante-partum fetal surveillance.

38

Which 2 systems have the greatest impact on pre-term survival?

-Resp
-CNS