Week 6.0 - Genital Infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 6.0 - Genital Infections Deck (65)
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1

What is a STD?

-Symptomatic cases only

2

Papillomaviruses cause...

...genital warts (genital cancers)

3

Chlamydia trachimatis causes...

...chlamydia, urethritis and lymphogranuloma venerem

4

Herpes simplex causes...

...genital herpes

5

Neisseriae gonorrhoeae causes..

...gonorrhea

6

Treponema pallidum causes...

...syphilis

7

Name some specific at risk groups of STI

-Young people
-Certain ethnic groups
-Low socio-economic status groups
-Certain aspects of sexual behavior

8

What are the possible reasons for increased incidence of STIs?

-Increased transmission (changing sexual/social behaviour and increasing population density)
-Increased GUM attendence
-Improved diagnostic methods

9

What is an STI?

-Symptomatic and asymptomatic infections transmitted by sexual activity

10

Give 3 complications of STIs

-Pelvic inflammatory disease
-Infertility
-Reproductive tract cancers
-Disseminated infections
-Transmission to fetus/neonate

11

Under what circumstances are STIs generally diagnosed?

-Patient presents with genital problems/lesions
-Clinician notes non-genital clinical features suggestive of STI
-Screening/contact tracing of asymptomatic infections

12

Discuss the general management of STIs

-Short course/single dose of antibiotics
-Screening for co-infections (empiric treatment?)
-Contact tracing
-Sexual health education/advice on contraception

13

What is the most common viral STI?

-Human papillomavirus

14

What type of virus is humanpapilloma virus?

-DNA virus

15

Which serotypes of HPV are the most common in causing genital warts?

-6 and 11

16

How does HPV present?

-Benign painless verrucous epithelia or mucosal outgrowths on the penis, vulva, vagina, urethra, cervix or perianal skin

17

Which serotypes of HPV are high risk for cervical or anogenital cancer?

-16 and 18

18

How is HPV a carcinogen?

-Expresses E6 and E7 proteins that inhibit p53 and pRB respectively, both of which are involved in cellular proliferation
-p53 is a TSG which suspends the cell cycle to trigger DNA repair mechanisms or mediates apoptosis in response to DNA damage
-pRB is an oncogene that prevents movement past the restriction point until the cell is ready for proliferation

19

How is HPV diagnosed?

-Clinical diagnosis or biopsy and genome analysis

20

What is the treatment for HPV?

-None-spontaneous resolution (1-2 years)
-Topical podophyllin, cryotherapy

21

Does HPV currently have a screening programme?

-It is screened for if indicatied in cervical smears

22

What serotypes does the HPV vaccine gardasil protect against and who gets it?

-6,11,16 and 18
-Girls aged 12-13

23

What type of bacterium is chlamydia trachomatis?

-Obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria

24

What significance to diagnosis does the fact that c.trachomais is an obligate intracellular bacteria have?

-Requires special medium to culture

25

How can chlamydia present in males?

-Utheritis, discharge, epididymitis, prostatitis, proctitis

26

How can chlamydia present in females?

-Urethritis, discharge, cervicitis, salpingitis, PID, proctitis, perihepatitis (fitzhugh-curtis syndrome)

27

What is a commons non-genital manifestation of c.trachomatis?

-Conjunctivitis

28

How is chlamydia diagnosed?

-Endocervical and urethral swabs subjected to NAAT
-1st void urine subjected to NAAT

29

What is NAAT?

-Nucleic acid amplification test

30

Outline the possible treatments of chlamydia

-Doxycycline (tetracycline) for 1-2 weeks
-Azithromycin (macrolide) for 1-3 days
-Erythromycin (in children)