Anatomy of Pharynx Flashcards Preview

ESA 4 - Head and Neck > Anatomy of Pharynx > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy of Pharynx Deck (56):
1

What is the pharynx? 

Essentially a muscular tube 

2

What does the pharynx arise from? 

The base of the skull 

3

Where does the pharynx extend down to? 

The level of C6 

4

What does the pharynx form? 

The upper part of the alimentary canal 

5

What is the pharynx posterior to? 

The nasal and oral cavities 

6

Where is the pharynx widest? 

Opposite the hyoid bone

7

Where is the pharynx narrowest? 

At its inferior end

8

What happens to the pharynx at its inferior end? 

It becomes continuous with the oesophagus 

9

Where does the posterior wall of the pharynx lie? 

Against the prevertebral layer of deep cervical fascia

10

What is the pharynx divided into? 

Three parts/areas; 

  • Nasopharynx
  • Oropharynx
  • Laryngopharynx

 

11

Where does the nasopharynx lie? 

Superior to the soft palate

12

What is the upper boundary of the nasopharynx? 

The base of the skull 

13

What is the relationship between the nasooharynx and the nasal cavities? 

It is a posterior extension of the nasal cavities, opening into it through two chonae 

14

What vertebraes lies posteriorly to the nasopharynx? 

C1

15

What structures lie within the nasopharynx? 

  • Oriface of pharyngotympanic tube
  • Collection of lymphoid tissue - the pharyngeal tonsil, or adenoids

16

Where does the oropharynx extend? 

From the level of the soft palate to the superior border of the epiglottis 

17

What vertebrae lie posteriorly to the oropharynx? 

C2 and C3

18

What structures are in the oropharynx? 

Palatine tonsils 

19

Where do the palatine tonsils lie? 

On either side, in the interval between palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches 

20

Where is the laryngopharynx? 

Posterior to the larynx

21

Where does the laryngopharynx extend? 

From the epiglottis to oesophagus, at the level of the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage 

22

What vertebral bodies lie posteriorly to the laryngopharynx? 

C3-6

23

What does the laryngopharyngeal cavity have on each side of the laryngeal inlet? 

A small depression - the piriform fossa 

24

What do the walls of the larynx consist of externally? 

Superior, middle, and inferior constrictors 

25

What innervates the constrictors of the walls of the larynx? 

Vagus nerve

26

What is the function of the constrictor msucles of the larynx? 

Relax and contract sequentially from above to propel foood into the oesophagus

27

What shape are the pharyngeal constrictors?

Circular

28

What are the names of the constrictor muscles of the pharynx?

  • Superior pharyngeal constrictor
  • Middle pharyngeal constrictor
  • Inferior pharyngeal constrictor

 

29

What are the parts of the inferior pharyngeal constrictor?

  • Thyropharyngeal 
  • Cricopharyngeal 

30

What do the walls of the larynx contain internally? 

Three intrinsic, longitudinal muscles 

31

What do the intrinsic, longitudinal muscles of the pharynx do?

Elevate the larynx during speaking and swallowing

32

What are the names of the intrinsic, longitudinal muscles of the pharynx?

  • Stylopharyngeus
  • Palatopharyngeus
  • Salpingopharyngeus 

 

33

What is the origin of the stylopharyngeus?

Styloid process

34

What is the attachment of the stylopharyngeus?

Posterior border of thyroid cartilage

35

What is the stylopharyngeus supplied by? 

Glossopharyngeal nerve 

36

What is the origin of the palatopharyngeus?

Hard palate

37

What is the attachment of the palatopharyngeus?

Posterior border of thyroid cartilage

38

What is the palatopharyngeus supplied by?

The pharyngeal branch of the vagus

39

What is the innervation of the palatopharyngeus?

Pharyngeal branch of the vagus 

40

What is the origin of the salpingopharyngeus?

Cartilaginous part of ET

41

What does the salpingopharyngeus merge with? 

Palatopharyngeus 

42

What is the salpinopharyngeus supplied by?

The pharyngeal branch of vagus 

43

What is the majority of the nerve supply to the pharynx derived from? 

The pharyngeal plexus of nerves

44

What is the pharyngeal plexus of nerves formed by? 

  • Branches of the vagus nerve (and nerves from cranial root accessory that runs with CN X)
  • Glossopharyngeal 
  • Sympathetic branches from the superior cervical ganglion 

 

45

What do branches of the vagus nerve supply in the pharynx?

All muscles of pharynx, apart from stylopharyngeus and tensor veli palatin 

46

What is tensor veli palatin supplied by? 

CN V3

47

How does the sensory supply of the pharynx differ? 

According to different parts of the pharynx

48

What is the sensory supply of the nasopharynx? 

Maxillary nerve

49

What is the sensory supply to the oropharynx?

Glossopharyngeal nerve

50

What is the sensory supply to the laryngopharynx?

Vagus nerve

51

Where is Waldeyer's Ring formed?

Around the naso- and oro-pharynx

52

What is Waldeyers Ring?

A continuous lymphoid ring 

53

What is Waldeyer's Ring formed from?

  • (Naso) pharyngeal tonsils
  • Palatine tonsils 
  • Lymphoid nodules on dorsum of tongue 

 

54

Who are the pharyngeal tonsils prominent in? 

Children

55

What happens to the pharyngeal tonsils in puberty? 

They undergo atrophy 

56

What is the result of children having prominent pharyngeal tonsils?

They are more susceptible to adenoid problems