Flashcards in Swallowing Deck (25):
What are the phases of swallowing?
Is the oral phase of swallowing voluntary or involuntary?
What does the oral phase of swallowing consist of?
What happens in the preparatory phase of swallowing?
What happens in the transit phase of swallowing?
Bolus compressed against palate and pushed into oropharynx by tongue and soft palate
Is the pharyngeal phase of swallowing voluntary or involuntary?
What are the features of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing?
Tongue positioned against hard palate
Soft palate elevated
Suprahyoid and longitudinal muscles shorten
Epiglottis closes over larynx
Bolus moves through pharynx by sequential contraction of constrictors
Relaxation of UOS
Why is the tongue positioned against the hard palate in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing?
So food cannot reenter the motuh
What is the position of the tongue against the hard palate in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing co-ordinated by?
Why is the soft palate elevated in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing?
Seals of nasopharynx
What is the raising of the soft palate in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing coordinated by?
Tensor palatine (CN V3) and levator palatine (CN X)
What is the shortening of the infrahyoid muscle in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing coordinated by?
CN V3, CN VII, CN XII
What is the shortening of the longitudinal muscle in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing coordinated by?
CN IX and X
What does the shortening of the suprahyoid and longitudinal muscles in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing cause?
Pharynx to widen and shorten to receive bolus
Larynx to elevate and be sealed off by vocal folds
What is the closure of the epiglottis over the larynx in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing due to?
The elevated hyoid
Is the oesophageal phase of swallowing voluntary or involuntary?
What muscle is involved in the oesophageal stage of swallowing?
Upper striated muscle of oesophagus
What is the upper striated muscle of oesophagus innervated by?
What can cause dysphagia?
Progressive neurological disease
Give 2 progressive neurological diseases that can cause dysphagia?
What % of post stroke deaths are due to pneumonia?
What are the signs and symptoms of dysphagia?
Change in voice/speech - wet voice
What happens in a swallow assessment?
First assess level of consciousness and postural control
Give small spoonfuls of water
Fibre-optic endoscopic evaluation
Why is a swallow assessment needed in dysphagia?
Because gag reflex is unreliable in determining risk