Arterial Supply of Head and Neck Flashcards Preview

ESA 4 - Head and Neck > Arterial Supply of Head and Neck > Flashcards

Flashcards in Arterial Supply of Head and Neck Deck (77):
1

What does the arterial supply of the head and neck arise from? 

Branches of the right and left common carotid arteries and vertebral arteries 

2

What arises from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right?

  • Subclavian 
  • Common carotid

 

3

What do the subclavian arteries give rise to? 

  • Internal thoracic
  • Thyrocervical trunk
  • Vertebral arteries 

 

4

Where does the internal thoracic artery go? 

Inside the ribcage

5

What is the internal thoracic artery commonly used in? 

Coronary artery bypass

6

What does the thyrocervical trunk give rise to? 

  • Ascending cervical and transverse cervical
  • Suprascapular
  • Inferior thyroid

 

7

What does the ascending cervical and transverse cervical supply?

The neck

8

What does the suprascapular artery supply? 

The shoulder

9

What does the inferior thyroid supply? 

The lower pole of the thyroid gland 

10

What do the vertebral arteries supply? 

The posterior neck and posterior parts of the brain 

11

What course does the vertebral artery take from its origin? 

It descends through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae (except C7) and enters the subarachnoid space just between the atlas and occipital bone. It then passes jup through the foramen magnum, curving aroudn the medulla, to join the vertebral artery from the other side

12

What does the vertebral artery eventually form? 

The basilar artery 

13

Where does the basilar artery run?

Along the anterior aspect of the brainstem 

14

What branches does the common carotid give off in the neck? 

None 

15

What does the right common carotid artery originate from? 

The brachiocephalic artery 

16

Where does the right common carotid artery branch from the brachiocephalic artery? 

Behind the right sternoclavicular joint 

17

Where does the left common carotid artery arise from? 

The arch of the aorta 

18

What is the result of the differing origins of the right and left common carotid arteries? 

The elft common carotid is slightly longer

19

Where does the left common carotid course before entering the neck? 

In the mediastinum, for about 2cm

20

What is each common carotid artery enclosed within? 

A carotid sheath 

21

What is the carotid sheath? 

A fascial envelope enclosing and seperating several structures a

22

What structures lie in the carotid sheath? 

  • Carotid artery
  • Internal jugular vein 
  • Vagus nerve
  • Deep cervical lymph nodes

 

23

How does the sheath differ over the carotid artery compared to other areas? 

It is thicker

24

How does the carotid artery lie in the carotid sheath relative to other structures? 

Lies medially within the sheath

25

How does the sheath over the internal jugular vein differ in comparison to other areas? 

It is thinner

26

Where does the internal jugular vein lie in the carotid sheath relative to other structures? 

Behind and inbetween vessels

27

Where is the carotid sheath found, relative to muscles in the area? 

Deep to the sternocleidomastoid muscle 

28

What is the carotid sheath derived from? 

  • The prevertebral layer of cervical fascia posteriorly 
  • The pretracheal layer anteromedially
  • The investing layer anterolaterally

 

29

Where does the sympathetic trunk lie relative to the carotid sheath? 

Outside the sheath, medially and behind it 

30

Where do the common carotids terminate? 

At the upper border of the thyroid cartilage

31

How do the common carotid arteries terminate? 

They divide into the internal and external carotid arteries

32

What happens to internal carotid at the divison? 

It is more bulbous 

33

Why is the internal carotid more bulbous at the division of the common carotids? 

Because of the carotid sinus and the carotid body 

34

What is the carotid sinus? 

A swelling at the region of bifurcation

35

What is the function of the carotid sinus? 

Location of baroreceptors for detecting changes in arterial BP 

36

What is the clinical relevance of the carotoid sinus? 

Rubbing this area firmly, termed a carotid massage, can alleviate supra-ventricular tachycardias

37

What is the function of the carotid body? 

It's where the peripheral chemoreceptors are

38

What do peripheral chemoreceptors do? 

Detect arterial oxygen 

39

Briefly describe the blood and nerve supply of the carotid body

Very rich 

40

How is the internal carotid artery distinguished from the external? 

By a lack of branches in the neck as it ascends to supply intra-cranial structures

41

How does the internal carotid artery enter the skull? 

Through the carotid canal 

42

What is the external carotid artery the major source of? 

Blood supply to extra-cranial structures of the head and neck region

43

What are the branches of the external carotid artery? 

  • Superficial thyroid
  • Lingual 
  • Facial 
  • Ascending pharyngeal 
  • Occipital 
  • Posterior auricular 
  • Maxillary 
  • Superficial temporal 

 

44

What are the terminal branches of the external carotid artery? 

Maxillary and superficial temporal 

45

Where does the external carotid artery divide into its terminal branches? 

At a level behind the neck of the mandible, within the substance of the parotid gland 

46

What does the maxillary artery notably give rise to? 

The middle meningeal artery 

47

What do many of the branches of the external carotid artery do? 

Make a loop at their origin 

48

What is the clinical relevance of the bifurcation of the carotid artery? 

It is a common site for atheroma formation 

 

49

Why is the bifurcation of the carotid artery a common site for atheroma formation? 

Because where blood meets the bifurcation, there is turbulence, leading to increased risk of atheroma formation 

50

What does atheroma formation at the bifurcation of the common carotid lead to? 

Narrowing (stenosis) of the artery, limiting blood to the brain 

51

What can a rupture of the atheroma at the bifucation of the carotid artery cause? 

An embolus to travel to the brain and get lodged in an artery there, leading to TIA or stroke 

52

What do most of the superficial arteries of the face arise from? 

Common carotid

53

What are the superficial arteries of the face? 

  • Supra-orbital 
  • Supra-trochlear
  • Transverse facial 
  • Angular
  • Lateral nasal
  • Maxillary
  • Superior and inferior labial 
  • Facial 

 

54

 What superficial arteries of the face do not arise from the common carotid? 

Supra-orbital and supra-trochlear

55

Where do the supra-orbital and supra-trochlear arteries arise from? 

The opthalmic, which is a branch of the internal carotid

56

What are the vessels that supply blood to the scalp largely branches of? 

The external carotid artery

57

What vessels supply blood to the scalp? 

  • Supra-orbital 
  • Supratroclear
  • Superficial temporal 
  • Posterior auricular 
  • Occipital 

 

58

What is the result of the scalp being supplied by a rich blood supply of anastomoses? 

Can get profuse bleeding 

59

Where do the vessels of the scalp lie? 

In the subcutaneous connective tissue layer 

60

What are the walls of the arteries supplying the scalp attached closely to? 

Connective tissue

61

What is the result of the walls of the arteries of the scalp being closely attached to connective tissue? 

Limits constriction, so can get profuse bleeding 

62

Why can deep lacerations to the epicranial aponeurosis cause profuse bleeding? 

Due to the opposing pull of the occipitofrontalis muscle 

63

Does loss of scalp blood supply lead to bone necrosis? 

No 

64

Why does loss of scalp blood supply not lead to bone necrosis? 

Because blood supply to the scalp is largely from the middle meningeal artery 

65

What is the middle meningeal artery a branch of? 

The maxillary artery 

66

What does the middle meningeal artery supply? 

Skull and dura

67

What is formed by the middle meningeal artery on the inside of the calvaria? 

Grooves 

68

What are the branches of the middle meningeal artery? 

Anterior and posterior 

69

Where does the anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery run? 

Under the pterion 

70

What is the pterion? 

A relatively thin area where a number of bones meet

71

When is the pterion prone to damage? 

When there is a blow to the side of the skull 

72

What can a fracture of the skull at the pterion cause? 

Rupture of the middle meningel artery

73

What happens when the middle meningeal artery is ruptured? 

Bleeding occurs, causing an extradural haemorrhage. Blood builds up and rips the periosteal layer of dura away from bone, and blood compresses the brain 

74

What is the function of a craniotomy? 

To gain access to the cranial cavity 

75

What happens in a craniotomy? 

The bone and scalp flap is reflected inferiorly to preserve blood supply

76

Why is the bone and scalp flap reflected inferiorly in a craniotomy? 

Because that's how the arterial supply runs

77

What is the purpose of preserving the arterial supply to scalp and bone in a craniotomy? 

So they can be replaced