Larynx Flashcards Preview

ESA 4 - Head and Neck > Larynx > Flashcards

Flashcards in Larynx Deck (99):
1

Where is the larynx?

Between the hyoid bone above, and trachea below

2

What vertebral level is the pharynx at?

C4-6

3

What are the functions of the larynx?

Ventilation
Airway protection
Allows us to cough
Production of sound

4

How is the larynx involved in ventilation?

Allow movement of air into and out of the lungs

5

How is the larynx involved in airway protection?

Preventing food and liquid that we swallow from entering the airway

6

Why is coughing important?

Important protective mechanism to expel rapidly any substances that have inadvertently found their way into the lower airways

7

What modifies the production of sound?

Pharynx
Oral cavity
Lips
Teeth
Tongue

8

What does the pharynx consist of?

Series of cartilages and bones

9

What is the structural framework of the larynx formed by?

Epiglottis
Thyroid cartilage
Cricoid cartilages
Arytenoid cartilages

10

What is the epiglottis?

A leaf shaped plate of fibroelastic cartilage

11

What is the function of the epiglottis?

Safety flap over larynx

12

What are the surfaces of the epiglottis?

Lingual
Underside

13

What epithelium does the lingual surface of the epiglottis have?

Stratified squamous epithelium

14

Why does the lingual surface of the epiglottis have stratified squamous epithelium?

Resistant to abrasion of bolus

15

What epithelium does the underside of the epiglottis have?

Columnar epithelium

16

What is the epiglottis attached to anteriorly?

Hyoid

17

What is the epiglottis attached to posteriorly?

Back of the thyroid cartilage

18

How is the epiglottis attached to the thyroid cartilage?

Thyroepiglottic ligament

19

What are the sides of the epiglottis attached to?

Arytenoids

20

How are the arytenoids attached to the sides of the epiglottis?

Aryepiglottic folds

21

What happens to the aryepiglottic folds?

Run backwards to form margins of entrance of larynx

22

What is the vallecula?

A depression between the tongue base and epiglottis

23

What is the significance of the vallecula?

It is where a laryngoscope is put

24

What is the thyroid cartilage attached to superiorly?

Hyoid bone

25

How is the thyroid cartilage attached to the hyoid bone?

Thyrohyoid membrane

26

What is the thyroid cartilage attached to inferiorly?

Cricoid cartilage

27

How is the cricoid cartilage attached to the thyroid cartilage?

Cricothyroid membrane

28

What is the significance of the cricothyroid membrane?

In acute laryngeal obstruction, can be punctured to enable the patient to breathe

29

What is the thyroid cartilage made up of?

Two lateral plates meeting in midline as a prominent V called laryngeal prominence

30

What vertebral level is the thyroid cartilage at?

Superior pole level with C4

31

What does the thyroid cartilage have attachments for?

Epiglottis and vocal cords

32

What shape are the cricoid cartilages?

Signet-ring shaped

33

How is the cricoid cartilage unique?

It is the only complete ring of cartilage throughout the respiratory tract

34

What does the cricoid cartilage articulate with?

Thyroid and arytenoid cartilages

35

What is the cricoid cartilage attached to inferiorly?

Trachea

36

How is the cricoid cartilage attached to the trachea?

Cricotracheal membrane

37

What is the clinical significance of the cricoid cartilage?

Cricoid pressure can be used during intubation

38

How is cricoid pressure used during intubation?

Press from front, flap compresses oesophagus and stops anything from coming up

39

Where do the arytenoid cartilages sit?

On top of the cricoid cartilage posteriorly, one on each side

40

What is found passing forwards from arytenoids to the back of the thyroid cartilages, just below epiglottic attachment?

Two folds of mucosa lining the interior of larynx

41

What are the names of the folds of mucosa lining the interior of the larynx?

Vestibular fold
True vocal cord

42

What is the vestibular fold also known as?

The false vocal cord

43

Where does the vestibular fold form?

On each side

44

What does the true vocal cord contain?

Vocal ligament

45

What is found between the vocal cords?

A space called the rima glottides

46

What do the mucosal folds demarcate?

The three zones of the larynx

47

What are the three zones of the larynx?

Supraglottic compartment, or vestible
Glottis compartment
Subglottic compartment

48

Where is the supraglottic compartment?

Above false vocal cords

49

Where is the glottis compartment?

Between false and true vocal cords

50

Where is the subglottic compartment?

Between true vocal cords and first tracheal ring

51

What connects all the cartilages of the larynx together?

Cricotracheal membrane

52

What happens to the upper edge of the cricotracheal membrane?

Its upper edge is slightly thickened to form the vocal ligament

53

What do the vocal cords consist of?

Vocal folds
Vocalis muscle
Stratified squamous epithelium

54

Where do the vocal cords attach?

Inner surface of thyroid cartilage anteriorly
Arytenoids posteriorly

55

What is the fixed attachment of the vocal cords?

Inner surface of thyroid cartilage

56

What is the importance of the attachment of the vocal cords to the arytenoids?

Moveable to open and close the vocal cords

57

How are the arytenoids involved in the movement of the vocal cords?

They pivot on cricoid cartilage when pulled by intrinsic laryngeal muscles to move cords

58

What are the functions of the muscles of the larynx?

Open glottis in inspiration
Close vestibule in swallowing
Alter tone of true vocal cords in phonation

59

What are the muscles of the larynx collectively called?

Intrinsic muscles of the larynx

60

What is true of one of the intrinsic muscles. the cricothyroid muscle?

It actually lies externally

61

What is the function of the cricothyroid muscle?

Tensing and slightly adducting the vocal cords

62

How does the cricothyroid muscle achieve its function?

By the tilting action of the thyroid cartilage on the cricoid cartilage

63

What is the effect of tensing the vocal cords?

Higher pitched sounds can be made

64

What is the cricothyroid innervated by?

The external laryngeal nerve

65

What is the external laryngeal nerve a branch of?

The superior laryngeal nerve, a branch of CN X

66

What are the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, apart from the superior laryngeal nerve, innervated by?

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

67

What do the rest of the intrinsic muscles, other than the cricothyroid, constitute?

An encircling sheet

68

What do many of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx act to do?

Move the arytenoid cartilage at the cricoarytenoid joint

69

What is the result of the movement of the arytenoid cartilage at the cricoarytenoid joint?

Allows opening and closing of the vocal cords, either directly or indirectly

70

What are the movements of the vocal cords important in?

Allowing the passage of air in and out of the lungs
Phonation
Protecting the airways during swallowing

71

What does the cricoarytenoid on each side do posteriorly?

Rotates the arytenoids outwards

72

What is the function of the outward rotation of the arytenoids?

Seperates (abducts) the vocal cords

73

What would happen without the cricoarytenoid action?

The vocal cords would resume a permanent adducted position, and block passage of air

74

What do the aryepiglottis and thyroepiglottis muscles attach to?

The epiglottis

75

What is the action of the aryepiglottis and thyroepiglottis?

Ensure laryngeal inlet is safely covered by the epiglottis

76

What does the aryepiglottis and thyroepiglottis work in conjunction with in ensuring that the laryngeal inlet is safety covered by the epiglottis?

The contraction of the suprahyoid muscles and pharyngeal muscles, which pull the larynx upwards, helping tilt the epiglottis further

77

What is the importance of ensuring the laryngeal inlet is safety covered by the epiglottis?

It ensures fluids/food directed away from laryngeal opening

78

What supports the larynx in its function?

Infrahyoid and suprahyoid muscles

79

How do the infra- and suprahyoid muscles support the larynx in its function?

They depress and elevate the hyoid

80

What provides innervation to the larynx?

Branches of the vagus nerve

81

What branches of the vagus nerve supply innervation to the larynx?

Superior laryngeal branches and recurrant laryngeal nerve

82

What does the superior laryngeal nerve branch into?

The internal and external laryngeal

83

What does the internal laryngeal nerve supply?

Sensory to the supraglottic compartment

84

What does the external laryngeal nerve supply?

Motor to cricothyroid

85

What does the cricothyroid do?

Moves thyroid for phonation

86

What does the recurrent laryngeal nerve innervate?

Laryngeal mucosa above vocal cords
Sensory to subglottic
Motor to intrinsic muscles

87

What are the superior and recurrent laryngeal nerves accompanied by?

Arterial branches from superior and inferior thyroid arteries

88

Why is knowledge of the relationship between the superior and recurrent laryngeal nerves, and the superior and inferior thyroid arteries, very important?

Important when operating on thyroid gland to avoid causing a vocal cord paralysis

89

What happens to the larynx during swallowing?

The epiglottis is pulled down to cover larynx. and the larynx is pulled up and forwards

90

What is the purpose of pulling the larynx up and forwards in swallowing?

Directs the bolus lateral to the epiglottis into the piriform fossae

91

What is the cervical plexus formed by?

Anterior pituitary rami of first four cervicla nerves

92

Where does the cervical plexus lie?

On surface of scalenus medius and levator scapulae muscles, deep to internal jugular vein

93

What does the cervical plexus emerge from?

The posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid

94

What does the cervical plexus lie within?

The posterior triangle

95

What do the sensory branches of the cervical plexus innervate?

Skin of neck
Part of scalp
Ear
Superior part of thorax

96

What do the muscular branches of the cervical plexus form?

A loop known as ansa cervicalis

97

What does ansa cervicalis give rise to?

Nerves supply most of the four paired infrahyoid muscles

98

What is one of the important nerves of the ansa cervicalis?

Phrenic nerve

99

What nerve roots does the phrenic nerve carry?

C3 and C4, and roots from ventral ramus of C5