Venous Drainage of Head and Neck Flashcards Preview

ESA 4 - Head and Neck > Venous Drainage of Head and Neck > Flashcards

Flashcards in Venous Drainage of Head and Neck Deck (41):
1

 Where to the veins draining the head and neck lie? 

Either superficial or deep to the investing layer of deep cervical fascia in the neck

2

Are there distinct fascial layers in the face? 

No, muscle attaches between bone and skin 

3

Where does the facial vein run? 

With the facial artery, from the medial angle of the eye towards the inferior border of the mandible 

4

What does the facial vein drain? 

Most structures of the face

5

What does the facial vein drain into? 

The internal jugular vein

6

Where does the internal jugular vein lie? 

Lateral to the common carotid, mostly under the sternocleidomastoid 

7

What does the facial vein have a numbr of important anastomoses with? 

Veins draining deeper structures within the skull 

8

Where does the facial vein recieve blood from? 

The superior and inferior opthalmic veins

9

Where does the facial vein communicate with the superior opthalmic? 

At the medial angle of the eye

10

What do the superior and inferior opthalmic veins have a direct connection with? 

The pterygoid venous plexus and cavernous sinus 

11

Where does the cavernous sinus lie? 

Intra-cranially 

12

What is the cavernous sinus part of? 

The intra-cranial venous system 

13

What is the cavernous sinus? 

A plexus of extremely thin walled veins on the upper surface of the sphenoid

14

What structures other than veins are found in the cavernous sinus?

  • Internal carotid artery
  • CN III oculomotor
  • CN IV trochlear
  • CN VI abducent
  • 2 branches of trigeminal; CN V1 opthalmic and CN V2 maxillary

15

Where does cavernous sinus sit? 

On the sphenoid bone, either side of pituitary

16

What is the result of the connection between the superior and inferior opthalmic veins (and therefore the facial veins) and the cavernous sinus? 

It has implications for infections involving the face, acting as a potential route for infection to track deeper into intra-cranial structures

17

What can formation of a septic thrombi, secondary to infection, in the facial vein cause? 

The septic thrombi can pass into the cavernous sinus, leading to a cavernous sinus thrombosis 

18

Where is infection most likely to cause the formation of a septic thrombi in the facial vein? 

Near the angle of the eye

19

Where do deep facial veins drain into? 

The pterygoid venous plexus 

20

Do veins of the face have valves? 

No 

21

What is the result of the veins of the face being valveless? 

Blood can flow in either direction

22

What is the result of blood in the veins of the face being able to flow in either direction? 

  • Infection from facial vein can spread to dural venous sinuses
  • Infected clots can travel to intracranial venous system

 

23

What is thrombophlebitis of the facial vein? 

Where there is an inflammation or infection of the vein, and a clot forms

24

What is the result of an infected clot travelling to the intracranial venous system? 

Carries infection deeper

25

What is the clinical relevance of the danger triangle of the face? 

Infections in this region of the face can spread through the venous system to dural venous sinuses, e.g. if a spot gets infected in this area

26

Insert venous draining of face and head diagram

 

 

27

What do the superficial veins accompany? 

Arteries 

28

What superficial veins accompanying an artery drain the scalp? 

  • Superficial temporal veins
  • Occipital veins
  • Posterior auricular 

 

29

Where do the supraorbital and supratrochlear veins unite? 

At the medial angle of the eye 

30

What is formed when the supraorbital and supratrochlear veins unite? 

The angular vein 

31

What does the angular vein drain into? 

The facial vein

32

What do the veins of some parts of the scalp in the temporal region drain into?

The pterygoid venous plexus

33

What are dural venous sinuses? 

Endothelium lined-spaces between periosteal and meningeal layers of dura

34

Where do dural venous sinuses form? 

At dural septae

35

Where do dural venous sinuses recieve blood from? 

Large veins draining brain 

36

Give 4 dural venous sinuses

  • Superior sagittal sinus
  • Inferior sagittal sinus
  • Cavernous sinus
  • Transverse sinus 

 

37

How does the transverse sinus continue? 

As the sigmoid sinus, which continues as internal jugular veins

38

How do the internal jugular veins leave the skull? 

Through the jugular foramina

39

How do the veins of the skull connect to diploic veins of the skull? 

Through several emissary veins, and thus dural venous sinuses

40

Do emissary veins have valves?

No

41

What is the result of the emissary veins being valveless? 

Blood can flow in either direction, so infection from scalp can spread to cranial cavity and affect the meninges