Scalp Flashcards Preview

ESA 4 - Head and Neck > Scalp > Flashcards

Flashcards in Scalp Deck (61):
1

How many layers does the scalp consist of?

Five

2

Which of the layers of the scalp are tightly bound together?

The first three

3

What is the result of the first three layers of the scalp being tightly bound together?

They move as a unit

4

What are the layers of the scalp? 

  • Skin
  • Dense connective tissue
  • Epicranial aponeurosis
  • Loose areolar connective tissue
  • Periosteum 

 

5

What does the skin layer of the scalp contain? 

  • Numerous hair follicles
  • Sebaceous glands

 

6

What is the skin of the scalp a common site for? 

Sebaceous cysts

7

What does the dense connective tissue in the scalp do? 

Connects skin to epicranial aponeurosis 

8

What is true of the blood and nerve supply of the dense connective tissue of the scalp? 

  • Richly vascularised and innervated 
  • Blood vessels within the layer are highly adherent to connective tissue

 

9

What is the result of the blood vessels in the dense connective tissue of the scalp being highly adherent to connective tissue? 

Renders them unable to constrict fully if lacerated, and therefore scalp can be a site of profuse bleeding 

10

What is the epicranial aponeurosis of the scalp? 

Thin, tendon-like structure

11

What does the epicranial aponeurosis of the scalp do? 

Connects occipitalis and frontalis muscles 

12

What is the loose arerolar connective tissue layer of the scalp? 

Thin connective tissue layer that seperates the periosteum of skull from epicranial aponeurosis 

13

What does the loose areolar connective tissue of scalp contain? 

Numerous blood vessels

14

What clinically important blood vessels does the loose areolar connective tissue of the scalp contain? 

Emissary veins 

15

What do the emissary veins do? 

Connect the veins of the scalp to the diploic veins and intracranial venous sinuses

16

What is the loose areolar connective tissue of the scalp known as? 

The danger area of the scalp

17

Why is the loose areolar connective tissue of the scalp known as the danger area of the scalp? 

Because pus and blood can easily spread within it, and can pass along the cranial cavity along emissary veins 

18

Where can infection spread from the scalp? 

The meninges, causing meningitis 

19

What is the periosteum of the scalp? 

Outer layer of skull bones 

20

What does the periosteum become continuous with? 

Endosteum 

21

Where does periosteum become continuous with endosteum? 

Suture lines 

22

Where do blood vessels supplying the scalp arise from? 

Branches of the internal and external carotid arteries 

23

Via what do the internal cartoid arteries supply the scalp? 

Via the branch, the opthalmic artery 

24

Where does the opthalmic artery supply the scalp? 

Anteriorly 

25

Via what does the opthalmic artery supply the scalp? 

Two branches; 

  • Supraorbital artery
  • Supratrochlear artery

 

26

What do the supraorbiral and supratrochlear artery accompany? 

The supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves respectively 

27

Via what does the external carotid artery supply the scalp? 

  • Superficial temporal 
  • Posterior auricular
  • Occipital 

 

28

What does the superficial temporal artery supply? 

Frontal and temporal regions

29

What does the posterior auricular artery supply? 

The area superior and posterior to auricle 

30

What does the occipital artery supply? 

Back of scalp 

31

What provides a rich blood supply to the tissues of the scalp? 

Anastomoses 

32

What is the clinical relevance of the anastomoses supplying the scalp? 

Scalp wounds often bleed heavily 

33

What can the venous drainage of the scalp be divided into? 

Superficial and deep components 

34

What arteries does the superficial drainage of the scalp follow? 

  • Superficial 
  • Occipital 
  • Posterior auricular 
  • Supraorbital 
  • Supratrochlear

Note: Veins are named after their respective arteries

35

What is the deep (temporal) region of the skull drained by? 

Pterygoid venous plexus

36

What is the pterygoid venous plexus? 

A large plexus of veins

37

Where is the pterygoid venous plexus situated? 

Between temporalis and lateral pterygoid muscles 

38

What does the pterygoid venous plexus drain into? 

The maxillary vein 

39

What do the veins of the scalp connect to? 

The diploic veins 

40

How do the veins of the scalp connect to the the diploic veins of the skull? 

Via valveless emissary veins 

41

What does the connection of the veins of the scalp and the diploic veins of the skull establish?

Connection between scalp and dural venous sinuses 

42

How does the scalp recieve its cutaneous innervation? 

Six main nerves

43

What do the main nerves of the scalp arise from? 

The trigeminal or cervical nerves

44

What does the trigeminal nerve give rise to? 

  • Supratrochlear nerve
  • Supraorbital nerve
  • Zygomaticotemporal nerve
  • Auriculotemporal nerve

 

45

What is the supratrochlear nerve a branch of? 

Opthalamic nerve

46

What does the supratrochlear nerve supply? 

Anteromedial forehead

47

What is the zygomaticotemporal nerve a branch of? 

Maxillary nerve

48

What does the zygomaticotemporal nerve supply? 

Temple

49

What is the auriculotemporal nerve a branch of? 

Mandibular nerve

50

What does the auriculotemporal nerve supply? 

Skin anterosuperior to auricle

51

What does the cervical nerve give rise to? 

  • Lesser occipital nerve
  • Greater occipital nerve

 

52

What is the lesser occipital nerve a branch of? 

The anterior rami of C2 and 3

53

Where does the lesser occipital nerve supply? 

Behind the ear

54

What is the greater occipital nerve a branch of? 

Anterior rami of C2 and C3

55

Where does the greater occipital nerve supply 

Posterior scalp up to vertex

56

What is the problem with deep lacerations of the scalp? 

They tend to blled profusely 

57

Why do deep lacerations of the scalp tend to bleed profusely? 

  • Pull of occipitofrontalis muscle prevents closure to bleeding vessel and surrounding skin
  • Blood supply of scalp made up of many anastomoses, which contribute to produse bleeding
  • The blood vessels of the scalp are connective to dense connective tissue

 

58

Why does the blood vessels of the scalp being connected to dense connective tissue lead to deep lacerations bleeding profusely? 

Prevents vasoconstriction that normally occurs in response to damage

59

Does loss of blood supply to scalp lead to bone necrosis? 

No 

60

Why does loss of blood supply to the scalp not lead to bone necrosis? 

Because most of the blood supply to scalp comes from middle meningeal artery

61

Label this diagram of the layers of the scalp

Add diagram with labels 

  • A  - Skin and dense connective tissue
  • B - Epicranial aponeurosis
  • C - Loose arerolar connective tissue
  • D - Periosteum