Pathology Of The Pharynx Flashcards Preview

ESA 4 - Head and Neck > Pathology Of The Pharynx > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology Of The Pharynx Deck (35):
1

What can happen when the pharyngeal tonsils get chronically inflamed?

May obstruct passage of air from nasal cavities through chonae into nasopharynx

2

Why can adenoids harbour infection?

They are richly vascularised

3

What is the result of the adenoids ability to harbour infection?

Removing the tissue may help with symptoms, even if adenoids not that enlarged

4

What does chronic inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsils cause?

Mouth breathing
Nasal tone to speech

5

What are the complications of chronically inflamed adenoid tonsils?

Otitis media
Sinusitis

6

What is otitis media in chronically inflamed pharyngeal tonsils due to?

Blockage of the pharyngotympanic tube

7

Why does the blockage of the pharyngotympanic tube cause otitis media?

Drainage and ventilation of the middle ear cavity are impeded

8

What is the classic theory by which blockage of pharyngotympanic tube causes otitis media?

-Cells in middle ear are constantly reabsorbing nitrogen/oxygen
-Blocked ET causes negative pressure in the middle ear
-Transudate (sterile) drawn in from mucosa
-Bacteria can now proliferate to cause otitis media

9

What are the complications of otitis media?

Hearing loss
Chronic inflammation of mastoid
Cholsteatoma
Meningitis, brain abscess

10

What is often true of the hearing loss in otitis media?

It is temporary

11

What is the hearing loss in otitis media associated with?

Effusion

12

What can chronic inflammation of the mastoid lead to?

Necrosis of mastoid process

13

What is cholesteatoma?

Cyst like lesions that are linked with chronic inflammation

14

How can cholesteatoma progress?

Can erode surrounding structures

15

What does the pharyngotympanic tube provide a potential route for?

Infection in the pharynx to spread the middle ear

16

What is the result of the Eustachian tube providing a route for infection in the pharynx to spread into the middle ear?

Not uncommon for respiratory tract infections to be complicated by middle ear infections

17

How is the Eustachian tube different in children?

Shorter, wider, more horizontal

18

What may recurrent inflammation of the tonsils require?

Removal of the tonsils (tonsillectomy) from the tonsillar bed

19

Which tonsils in particular may need to be removed in tonsillitis?

Palatine

20

What is the problem with a tonsillectomy?

Procedure may result in profuse bleeding from the rich blood supply to the tonsil

21

What is the blood supply to the palatine tonsil?

Tonsillar branch of facial artery

22

What is the piriform fossa a common site for?

Foreign bodies entering the pharynx to become lodged

23

What is the piriform fossa a common site for?

Foreign bodies entering the pharynx to become lodged

24

What may happen if sharp objects get lodged in the piriform fossa?

May pierce mucous membrane

25

What is the problem with sharp objects in the piriform fossa piercing the mucous membranes?

Injury important structures such as nerves

26

What happens to many swallowed foreign objects?

They reach the stomach

27

What may happen if a swallowed foreign object doesn't reach the stomach?

May lodge at inferior end of laryngopharynx

28

What is a pharyngeal pouch?

Posteromedial false diverticulum

29

What is a pharyngeal pouch probably due to?

Failure of the UOS to relax
Abnormal timing of swallowing

30

What is found between the two muscle belly components of the inferior constrictor?

Small area of weakness known as Killian's dehiscence

31

When can Killian's dihiscence cause problems?

If there is discoordination of the pharynx during swallowing

32

Why can discoordination while swallowing cause problems at Killian's dehiscence?

Increased pressure within the pharynx can occur as these two muscles attempt to constrict against a closed oesophageal sphincter. This can cause part of the pharyngeal mucosa to herniate through Killian's dehiscence, forming a pharyngeal pouch

33

When can pharyngeal pouches be asymptomatic?

When they are small

34

What are the symptoms of pharyngeal pouches?

Dysphagia
Regurgitation of food
Halitosis

35

What are the symptoms of pharyngeal pouches related to?

Food material collection in pouch, or disruption of swallow